Contents and Abstracts
September 1994 Volume 1
March 1995 Volume 2, Number 1
September 1995 Volume 2, Number 2
March 1996 Volume 3, Number 1
September 1996 Volume 3, Number 2
March 1997 Volume 4, Number 1
September 1997 Volume 4, Number 2
March 1998 Volume 5, Number 1
September 1998 Volume 5, Number 2
March 1999 Volume 6, Number 1
September 1999 Volume 6, Number 2
March 2000 Volume 7, Number 1
September 2000 Volume 7, Number 2
March-September 2001 Volume 8, Number 1-2
September 2001 Volume 8, Supplement 1
March-September 2002 Volume 9, Number 1-2
March-September 2003 Volume 10, Number 1-2
March-September 2004 Volume 11, Number 1-2
August 2008 Volume 12, Number 1-2
Sourakov, A. 1994. Butterfly Collecting in the Former Soviet Union. Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 1-6.
Abstract: A brief account is given of collecting in the Southern Palearctic region of the former Soviet Union, bordering the Asian tropics. The possibility of doing field work there has just opened again for the first time since the Russian Revolution of 1917 and while conditions are often chaotic, the collecting of Lepidoptera can be excellent.
Key words: Achillides, Afghanistan, Altay, Amuriana, Apatura, Armenia, Asia, Azerbaijan, butterflies, Coleoptera, Colias, Erebia, Euchloe, expeditions, Far East, Hypermestra, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Limenitis, Lycaenidae, Manchuria, Mongolia, Neptis, Ninguta, Nymphalidae, Oeneis, Papilio, Papilionidae, Parnassius, Pieridae, Pieris, Plebejus, Russia, Satyrinae, Scolitantides, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, Tenebrionidae, Thecla, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zegris.
Krizek, G. O., Havel, L., and P. A. Opler. 1994. Western Palearctic Butterflies in Photography. Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 7-61.
Abstract: This photo essay presents 356 color figures, on 52 plates, of primarily European butterflies, photographed in nature. Various European countries are involved, as well as nearby areas like Morocco and Turkey. Some Holarctic species were photographed in the USA.
Key words: Africa, Aglais, Agriades, Agrodiaetus, Albulina, Anthocharis, Apatura, Aphantopus, Aporia, Araschnia, Arethusana, Argynnis, Aricia, Austria, Azanus, Boloria, Brenthis, Brintesia, Bulgaria, Callophrys, Celaslrina, Charaxes. Chazara, Coenonympha, Colias, Colotis, Cupido, Cyaniris, Czechoslovakia, Danaus, Erebia, Euchloe, Eumedonia, Euphydryas, Europe, Everes, Fabriciana, France, Germany, Glauctipsyche, Gonepteryx, Hamearis, Heodes, Hipparchia, Hyponephele, Inachis, Iphiclides, Issoria, Italy, Lampides, Lasiommata, Leptidea, Limenitis, Lopinga, Lycaeides, Lycaena, Lycaenidae, Lysandra, Maculinea, Maniola, Melanargia, Meleageria, Melitaea, Mellicta, Mesoacidalia, Minois, Morocco, Neptis, Nordmannia, North Africa, Nymphalidae, Nymphalis, Oeneis, Palaeochrysophanus, Papilio, Papilionidae, Pararge, Parnassius, Philotes, Pieridae, Pieris, Plebejus, Plebicula, Polygonia, Polyommatus, Portugal, Pseudochazara, Pyronia, Quercusia, Satyrus, Scolitantides, Slovakia, Spain, Strymonidia, Switzerland, Syntarucus, Tarucus, Thecla, Thersamonia, Turkey, USA, Vacciniina, Vanessa, Zegris, Zerynthia, Zizeeria.
Harry, J. L. 1994. Adelpha bredowi eulalia in Utah: a Photo Life History (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 62-63.
Kozial, J. 1994. Bilateral Gynandromorph of Speyeria cybele pseudocarpenteri (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 64.
Abstract: Conservation management at the Gray Ranch, in southwestern New Mexico (Hidalgo Co.), is summarized. Fire is a significant aspect of the natural ecosystem of the Gray Ranch area. Butterflies of the Gray Ranch region are noted and some are illustrated.
Key words: conservation, Danaidae, ecology, Hesperiidae, Libytheidae, Lycaenidae, Megathymidae, Mexico, New Mexico, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, range management, Riodinidae, Satyridae.
Abstract: The clearwing moths recorded for Japan total 39 species (including one subspecies): all species are figured, and their life history, distribution and hostplants are discussed.
Key words: Aceraceae, Betulaceae, Castanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, hostplant, Juglandaceae, Macroscelesia, Melittia, Nokona, Okinawa, Oriental, Palearctic, Paranthrene, Paranthrenopsis, Pennisetia, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Russia, Ryukyu Is., Salicaceae, Scalarignathia, Sesia, Sesiinae, Similipepsis, Synanthedon, Taiwan, taxonomy, Tinthiinae, Toleria, Trichocerota, Vitaceae.
Heppner, J. B. 1994. Book Review: Butterflies of Alberta, by J. Acorn. Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 82.
Heppner, J. B. 1994. Book Review: The Owlet Moths of Ohio. Order Lepidoptera, Family Noctuidae, by R. W. Rings, E. H. Metzler, F. J. Arnold, and D. H. Harris. Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 82.
Abstract: The genus Episimus is revised for North America with 9 known species, 3 of which are described as new from Florida: Episimus lagunculariae, n. sp.; Episimus kimballi, n. sp.; and Episimus burserae, n. sp. All Nearctic and subtropical Episimus species occur in Florida. Other than for 3 species widespread in eastern North America, most of the North American Episimus are restricted to southern Florida, with 3 species known to also occur in the West Indies. Episimus guiana (Busck), Episimus nesiotes Walsingham, and Episimus transferranus (Walker) are newly recorded for Florida and the United States.
Key words: Aceraceae, Amazonas, Anacardiaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Bahamas, Belize, Betulaceae, Brazil, Burseraceae, biology, Caprifoliaceae, Combretaceae, Compositae, Cuba, Diptera, Enarmonia, Endopiza, Episimus burserae n. sp., Episimus kimballi n. sp., Episimus lagunculariae n. sp., Ericaceae, Eucoenogenes, Euphorbiaceae, Guyana, Hamamelidaceae, Hawaii, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, Jamaica, Magnoliaceae,Mesoamerica, Mexico, Myricaceae, Myrsinaceae, Nearctic, Neotropical, Nyssaceae, Olethreutinae, Olethreutini, pheromones, Rosaceae, St. Croix, St. Vincent, South America, taxonomy, Theaceae, Ulmaceae, USA, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, West Indies.
Abstract: This study is an overview of the systematics of the Cercyonis pegala group of butterflies. Laboratory cultures of three different subspecies were established in the summer of 1993. Interbreeding experiments between different subspecies of Cercyonis pegala from Ohio and Colorado were conducted successfully. Breeding of color morphs in the highly variable population from Ohio proved the "form" status of the yellow-banded (C. p. alope) and dark-brown (C. p. nephele) specimens, instead of subspecific or specific status. Studies of over 5,000 specimens of Cercyonis pegala in the major entomological collections, led to the conclusion that Eastern U.S. populations of C. pegala have clinal status rather than being separate subspecies. A new treatment is proposed which synonomizes all names of subspecies in the East. The present condition of the systematics of C. pegala across the Western United States is discussed, however, the existing extensive use of subspecific designations there is not altered due to insufficient biological and genetic information. This study also attempted to apply analyses of different populations for cuticular hydrocarbons (by gas chromatography) and for genetic variation in genes controlling a number of enzyme systems (via allozyme electrophoresis) for obtaining additional information on the organisms. However, these techniques proved to be not capable of resolving useful variation or differentiating populations or taxa at the subspecific level. Studies of the immature stages of different subspecies of C. pegala were also conducted, and these findings led to the conclusion that there are extreme similarities in egg, larval, and pupal characters on the subspecific level in this group. All taxonomically useful characters that have been used to define forms or subspecies in this butterfly complex therefore are confined to the adult stage. Studies on larval biology and mating habits of Cercyonis pegala showed that mating is restricted to different hours in the day for different populations, even when all are bred under similar conditions. Also, significant differences were shown in the behavior of larvae of different subspecies. Finally, change in daylength was found to be a significant, if not the only factor involved in breaking the larval diapause, eliminating the usual concept of temperature being the key factor in this process.
Key words: Acari, allozymes, behavior, biogeography, Canada, Cercyonis, diapause, Diptera, distribution, eggs, electrophoresis, evolution, gas chromatography, genetics, Great Basin, hydrocarbons, Hymenoptera, Hyponephile, larval biology, Maniola, Maniolini, Mexico, Minois, Nearctic, North America, Nymphalidae, Orthoptera, pupae.
Krizek, G. O. 1995. Western Palearctic Butterflies in Photography: Addendum. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(1): 21.
Sourakov, A. 1995. Book Review: Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens / Butterflies of North-West Asia, by V. Lukhtanov and A. Lukhtanov. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(1): 22.
Emmel, T. C. 1995. Book Review: Butterflies of Delmarva, by E. N. Woodbury. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(1): 22.
Abstract: This study of one of the largest populations in Hungary of the protected Hungarian Zephyr Blue (Plebejus sephirus kovacsi Szabo, 1954), listed in the "Red Book" includes estimations of foodplant, larval numbers and life-history, chrysalis, individual numbers and activity of images, and nectar sources.
Key words: Apocynaceae, behavior, biology, bionomics, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositae, conservation biology, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, endangered species, Ephedraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Europe, Gramineae, hostplants, Hungary, immatures, Iridaceae, Labiatae, larvae, Leguminosae, Liliaceae, nectaring, Orchidaceae, Palearctic, Plebejus, population dynamics, pupa, Rosaceae, Scrophulariaceae.
Abstract: The biology and systematics of hairstreak butterflies of the genera Artropoetes, Araragi, Strymonidia, Neozephyrus, Wagimo, Ussuriana, Fixsenia, Thecla, Chrysozephyrus, Japonica, Shirozua, and Antigius from the Russian Far East are discussed. The life histories and especially the morphology of the eggs are useful in drawing taxonomic conclusions.
Key words: Amur, Antigius, Aphnaeus, Araragi, Arhopala, Artropoetes, Asia, behavior, Betulaceae, China, Chrysozephyrus, ecology, Eumaeini, Fagaceae, Fixsenia, hostplants, immatures, Japonica, Juglandaceae, Korea, larvae, Loxura, Manchuria, morphology, Neozephyrus, Oleaceae, Palearctic, Papilionidae, Rhamnaceae, Rhopalocera, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Shirozua, Strymonidia, systematics, Thecla, Theclini, Ulmaceae, Umbelliferae, Ussuri, Ussuriana, Wagimo.
Abstract: The moth Thetidia plusiaria (Boisduval) is one of the most common species of Geometridae in the Iberian Peninsula. T. plusiaria is a relatively abundant species with a characteristic wing pattern as well as an Ibero-Moroccan distribution which characterizes it as one of the most interesting elements of the Iberian Fauna. The occurrence of its larvae on the plant Santolina chamaecyparissus, a species endemic to the western Mediterranean area, offers insights on its speciation, suggesting a new interesting host-plant relation. In this paper, the morphology of the different immature stages is described, with special attention to the cuticular structures of the larvae.
Resumen: El lepidóptero Thetidia plusiaria (Boisduval) es una de las especies mas características de la Península Ibérica. Su relativa abundancia, su peculiar coloración, así como su distribución ibero-magrebí lo convierten en un claro exponente de la singularidad faunística ibérica. El descubrimiento de su oruga sobre la compuesta Santolina chamaecyparissus, especie exclusiva de la cuenca mediterránea occidental, justifica su especiación ibérica así como permite establecer una nueva e interesante relación planta- insecto. Asimismo, en este trabajo, se describe la morfología de los distintos estados pre imagínales, centrando la atención en las estructuras tegumentarias de la oruga.
Key words: Aphididae, Athroolopha, biogeography, Braconidae, Cecidomyiidae, Cinglis, Coleophora, Coleophoridae, Comibaena, Compositae, Compsoptera, Cucullia, Diptera, distribution, egg, Eupithecia, Europe, Gelechiidae, Geometrinae, Heliothea, Homoptera, hostplant relationships, Hymenoptera, Ibero-Maghrebian, immatures, Italy, larvae, life history, Morocco, Narraga, Noctuidae, Palearctic, parasitoids, Phyllophila, pupa, Sophornia, Spain, Stenodes, Synchlora, Thetidia, Tortricidae.
Emmel, T. C., Sourakov, A., and A. Dantchenko. 1995. A Lepidoptera Expedition to the Far East Region of Russia. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 43-50.
Abstract: The results of a joint Russian-American expedition to the Far East region of Russia in July 1995 are reported, including a list of all 119 butterfly species recorded, with comments on habitats, life histories, and notes on the moth fauna. This ecologically unique area, north and south of Vladivostok, supports a mixture of subtropical and north temperate flora and fauna making this site among the richest in biodiversity in the Palearctic Region. The Lepidoptera fauna in particular deserves intensive study.
Key words: biodiversity, biogeography, Coleoptera, Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Russian Far East, Sphingidae
Abstract: The history and origins of the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (German Entomological Inst.) are presented, together with an overview of its current size and status. Notes are given on the former researchers and directors of the Institute, and on development of the library and collections.
Key words: biography, entomologists, history, libraries, museums.
Hilton, H. O., and J. B. Heppner. 1995. Zebra Swallowtail Life History (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 57-58.
Daniels, J. C. 1995. Seasonal Variation in the Little Sulphur Butterfly, Eurema lisa lisa, in Central Florida: How it Compares to Other Sympatric Eurema Species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 59-65.
Abstract: Eurema lisa lisa Boisduval & Leconte produces distinct wet and dry season forms in central Florida that, when compared with the other two sympatric, polyphenic Eurema species, Eurema nicippe (Cramer)and E. daira Latreille, shares numerous basic overall trends in wing color and pattern changes. A marked discrepancy in the trend appears, however, if proboscis length and forewing length are examined. The resulting contrarieties are discussed in regard to differences in adult winter activity, mobility and reproductive status.
Key words: ecology, movement, reproductive diapause, seasonal polyphenism.
Kutis, J. S., and J. B. Heppner. 1995. Zale perculta, a Rarity in Florida (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 66.
Krizek, G. O., Ortiz-G., M., and L. Havel. 1995. Palearctic Zygaenidae and Some of their Mimics. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 67-73.
Abstract: Based on the description of a Mullerian mimetic complex involving Palearctic Zygaenidae and their mimics, as described by Sbordoni and Forestiero (see Literature Cited), the authors assembled 28 pictures from life of 20 species of Palearctic Zygaenidae and 4 pictures of their mimics, belonging to different orders of insects (e.g., Coleoptera: Cleridae and Meloidae) and Homoptera (Cercopidae).
Key words: Anatolia, chemical defense, Cercopidae, Cleridae, Coleoptera, Czech Republic, France, Homoptera, Italy, Meloidae, mimicry, Morocco, Müllerian mimicry, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Zygaena.
Krizek, G. O. 1995. Butterfly Pupae Mimmicking Mammalian (or Vertebrate) Faces. Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 74.
Abstract: Presented are two pictures of Nearctic Rhopaloceran pupae. One of them, Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius), Lycaenidae, is well known for its resemblance to a monkey's face. The other chrysalis, belonging to Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, has, to my knowledge, as yet never attracted the attention of zoologists, esp. lepidopterists—as mimicking—at least in some possibly atypical individuals, the mammalian (or vertebrate) face. One such interesting specimen is demonstrated.
Key words: chrysalis, Feniseca, illusion, Lycaenidae, mimicry, natural deception, Papilio, Papilionidae, pupa, Spalgis.
Hilton, H. O., and J. B. Heppner. 1995. Red-Spotted Purple Metamorphosis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 75-76.
Abstract: An unusual population of the lycaenid butterfly, Meleageria daphnis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), is found in the Kislovodsk area (43.8°N lat., 42.7°E long.) of southern Russia; 60% of the observed females in the adult population have been partial gynandromorphs or sexual mosaics during the period of 1988 to 1993. This site is within 30 km of the center of the refining area where uranium was processed for the first Soviet atomic bombs, and is also within the southeastern boundary (extent as of 2 May 1986) of the cloud of radiation released from the Chernobyl disaster on 26 April 1986. The situation may reflect a high level of radiation-induced somatic mutations or a genetic alteration in the Y-chromosome carried by most of the females in the population.
Key words: Agrodiaetus, gynandromorph, Leguminosae, Lycaenidae, Meleageria, nuclear pollution, Pseudophilotes, sexual mosaic, somatic mutations.
Hilton, H. O., and J. B. Heppner. 1995. Life History of the Monarch (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 2(2): 81-82.
Abstract: Some butterflies of special interest in the Czech Republic (including mention of endemic Sesiidae and Zygaenidae) are noted and illustrated, particularly endemic species and endangered species. The geographical and geologic-historical summary for the Czech Republic notes the 4 major faunal elements of local nature: Hercynian District, Carpathian District, Pontico-Pannonian District, and Polonian District.
Key words: Aristolochiaceae, Asia, Asia Minor, Balkans, Bavaria, Bohemia, conservation, distribution, endemism, Europe, France, genetics, Genitianaceae, Germany, hostplants, Hungary, Libytheidae, Lycaenidae, Mediterranean, mimicry, Moravia, Nearctic, Nymphalidae, Palearctic, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Poland, Polygonaceae, Quaternary, Rhopalocera, Sesiidae, Slovakia, Tertiary, Ukraine, Zygaenidae.
Abstract: Danaus eresimus (Cramer) (Nymphalidae) was believed to be a very rare stray into Florida until the early 1970's when the first suspected populations were documented. Currently, this species is firmly established and locally common in southern Florida. In 1994, this species was found at a number of sites in central Florida. Results are presented that document the biology, ecology, behavior and distribution of D. eresimus in Florida. Brief descriptions of the early stages are given. Taxonomic issues and the factors influencing the dynamics of this species in Florida are also discussed.
Key words: Agraulis, Anacardiaceae, Anartia, Arizona, Asbolis, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bahamas, behavior, Boraginaceae, Calpodes, Compositae, Danainae, distribution, early stages, ecology, Electrostrymon, habitat, Heliconius, Hispaniola, hostplants, immigration, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Lycaenidae, Malvaceae, Mexico, mimicry, Ministrymon, parasites, Pieridae, phenology, Phocides, Phoebis, Siproeta, Strymon, taxonomy, USA, Verbenaceae, West Indies.
Abstract: The eight larval instars of Sesia siningensis (Hsu) were determined by systematic sampling and rearing in the field. The rate of growth of the larvae was studied by means of zero mark, and succession between groups of larvae of different years was observed by field sampling.
Key words: biology, Cossidae, Cossus, group succession, growth rhythm, immatures, larvae, life history.
Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Major Lineages of the Crambiinae and of the Genera of Crambini of North America (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), by B. Landry. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(1): 22.
Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Swallowtail Butterflies: their Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, edited by J. M. Scriber, Y. Tsubaki, and R. C. Lederhouse. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(1): 22.
Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: The Owlet Moths of Ohio. Order Lepidoptera, Family Noctuidae, by R. W. Rings, E. H. Metzler, F. J. Arnold, and D. H. Harris. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(1): 22.
Abstract: Larval growth rates and efficiencies were measured using standard gravimetric techniques for penultimate and final instar North American Antheraea polyphemus and Asian A. pernyi silkmoths to evaluate ecological hypotheses about the physiological adaptations of these two species. Contrary to expectations, the oak-feeding specialist, A. pernyi did not grow more efficiently nor more rapidly than the polyphagous A. polyphemus when fed 5 different Quercus species and Prunus serotina. In fact, the A. polyphemus generally grew more rapidly in spite of the lower nutritional quality (leaf water and nitrogen content) of their food, than was the case for A. pernyi. Several potential explanations are discussed, including body size effects.
Key words: Alaska, Asia, behavior, British Columbia, Canada, China, Fagacez:e, genetics, herbivory, hostplants, Hymenoptera, larvae, Mexico, Missouri, Nearctic, Noctuidae, North America, nutrition, Papilio, Papilionidae, parasitoids, Pennsylvania, Rosaceae, Spodoptera, Trichogrammatidae, USA.
Abstract: This work describes the distribution, density, phenology and habitat (altitude range and type of vegetation) of Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus) in the Sierra de Guadarrama of Central Spain. Its present state of conservation in the area is analyzed and compared to that of twenty years ago.
Key words: Asia, Campanulaceae, conservation, Compositae, Crassulaceae, decline, density, distribution, endangered species, Europe, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, France, habitats, hostplants, Iberian Peninsula, Leguminosae, phenology, Pinaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poland, population biology, relict species, Sweden.
Abstract: The results of a June-July 1996 expedition to central Armenia are described. Immature stages of Limenitis reducta (Nymphalidae), Tomares romanovi (Lycaenidae) and Libythea celtis (Libytheidae) are illustrated, and a new food plant record is provided for Thaleropis jonia (Nymphalidae). A list of butterfly species (except skippers) found at Khosrov Nature Reserve is given.
Key words: Apaturinae, Ascalaphidae, Azerbaijan, biodiversity, biogeography, Buprestidae, Caprifoliaceae, Caucasus, Central Asia, Cerambycidae, Coleoptera, Georgia, Hesperiidae, Leguminosae, Libytheidae, life history, Lycaenidae, Myrmeleontidae, Nemopteridae, Neuroptera, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Palearctic, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Russsia, Satyrinae, Soviet Union, Turkey, Ulmaceae, Umbelliferae.
Emmel, T. C. 1996. Book Review: Wings of Paradise: the Great Saturniid Moths, by J. Cody. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 42.
J. B. 1996. Book Review:
A Monograph of the North American Heliothentinae
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by D. F. Hardwick. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 42.
Abstract: The growth and development of the insect collections of the Natural History Museum of Bucharest, Romania (Muzeul de Istorie Naturala "Grigore Antipa") is summarized, along with historical sketches of major contributors to the collections of the museum.
Key words: collections, entomohistory, museums.
Abstract: Descriptions of immature stages and adult and larval behavior of Sephisa princeps Fixsen (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are provided from the Russian Far East. The larvae feed in groups and exhibit an elaborate communal behavior. The overall distribution and biology are discussed in relation to the species' supposed endangered status, which is not confirmed in the present work: only complete destruction of the habitat can actually thrust a S. princeps population into endangered existence. The geographic range of each of the four species of the genus Sephisa is correlated with the range of different species of the larval hostplants of the oak genus Quercus. The ranges of different subspecies of S. chandra, are found to correspond with the ranges of different subspecies of Q. glauca, allowing one to suppose a possible co-speciation between these two taxa.
Key words: Apatura, Apaturinae, behavior, biology, China, Coleoptera, conservation, egg, Euripus, Europe, Fagaceae, Far East, Hainan, Hestina, Hestinalis, hostplants, immature stages, India, Japan, Korea, larvae, Lycaenidae, Malaysia, Nepal, oviposition, Primor'e, pupae, Russia, Salicaceae, Sasakia, Sephisa, Taiwan, Yunnan.
Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Lepidoptera of China. 1-2, by L. Chao and H.-Y. Wang. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 58.
Heppner. J. B. 1996. Book Review: The Wild Silk Moths of North America, by P. M. Tuskes, J. P. Tuttle, and M. M. Collins. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 58.
Schwarz, K. A., Worth, R. A., and T. C. Emmel. 1996. Conservation of Two Threatened South Florida Butterflies and their Host Plants (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 59-61.
Abstract: Anaea troglodyta floridalis and Stymon acts bartrami have been found in reduced numbers in recent years due to environmental causes and factors introduced by humans. Protection of the butterflies and proper management of their habitat will be essential for their preservation in the Florida Keys and on the South Florida mainland.
Key words: Anaea, butterfly conservation, Euphorbiaceae, Florida Keys, habitat conservation, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Strymon.
Worth, R. A., Schwarz, K. A., and T. C. Emmel. 1996. Notes on the Biology of Strymon acis bartrami and Anaea troglodyta floridalis in South Florida (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 62-65.
Abstract: The Florida Leafwing (Anaea troglodyta floridalis Johnson and Comstock) and Bartram's Hairstreak (Strymon acis bartrami (Comstock and Huntington)) are restricted to the tropical pineland habitat of South Florida. A review of past literature, together with recent observations and color photographs, gives a fairly complete overview of the life histories of these two threatened butterflies.
Key words: butterflies, Charaxinae, Compositae, Danainae, Danaus, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, life history, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, South Florida, Theclinae, urbanization, Verbenaceae.
Ross, G. N. 1996. Butterfly Predators. Holarctic Lepidoptera 3(2): 66.
Abstract: Adult Pyralidae are found to have distinctive resting postures in regard to antennal position; typically, the antennae in various subfamilies are held in varying forms of a parallel position to the thorax and abdomen. Antennal resting position in this family is diagnostic in quickly identifying moths as members of the family.
Key words: Atasthalistis, Arichanna, behavior, Chrysauginae, Crambidae, Crambinae, Dichomeris, Epipaschiinae, Ethmiinae, Galleriinae, Gelechiidae, Geometridae, Midilinae, Neotropical, Noctuidae, Nymphulinae, Odontiinae, Oecophoridae, Ostrinia, Phycitinae, Plutellidae, Pyralidae, Pyralinae, Pyraustinae, Salebriaria, Schoenobiinae, South America, Stenomatinae, Taiwan, taxonomy, Tineidae, Venezuela.
Abstract: Chlosyne nycteis was recently rediscovered in Florida at two sites within the Apalachicola River system of Jackson and Gadsden counties. These populations may be disjunct relicts, located far from other known populations to the north and west. Conversely, the species may continuously occur from Florida into northern Georgia along the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers which form the headwaters of the Apalachicola River.
Key words: Alabama, Amblyseines, Anthocharis, Compositae, distribution, Georgia, Hesperiidae, hostplants, Lycaenidae, Pieridae, Satyrium.
Abstract: The central Great Basin is a region of climatic extremes that supports a biota that rarely has been characterized. The natural history of the butterfly fauna of the centrally located Toiyabe Range, one of the most spectacular mountain ranges in that region, yields insights into both the typical species composition of interior montane landscapes and the susceptibility of such biotas to anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Over the past 60 years, 72 resident and 27 nonresident butterfly species have been recorded from the Toiyabe Range. Species richness, local distribution, and life history characteristics of Toiyabe Range butterflies are discussed in the context of historic and modern biogeography, climate, and habitat variability. Species presence records for 30 canyons within the Toiyabe Range are summarized. Photographs of butterflies characteristic of the central Great Basin are presented.
Key words: Great Basin, Hesperioidea, montane butterflies, Nearctic, North America, Papilionoidea, Rhopalocera, riparian, species richness.
Abstract: We resolve a potentially confusing species-level problem involving Mompha sexstrigella (Braun) and two undescribed Mompha species that are externally similar to M. sexstrigella. The new western North American moths are described as Mompha achlyognoma n. sp. (California) and Mompha cleidarotiypa n. sp. (Arizona); we provide illustrations and diagnoses for separating the three. We also reassign Mompha complexa Svensson as a junior synonym of M. sexstrigella.
Samenvatting: Er wordt een oplossing geleverd voor een mogelijk verwarrend soortenprobleem betreffende Mompha sexstrigella (Braun); twee nieuwe soorten die uiterlijk gelijken op M. sexstrigella worden beschreven: Mompha achlyognoma sp. n. (California) en Mompha cleidarotrypa sp. n. (Arizona). Illustrates en diagnoses om de drie soorten te onderscheiden worden gegeven. Ook wordt Mompha complexa Svensson als junior synoniem van M. sexstrigella aangewezen.
Key words: Arizona, biology, California, Colorado, distribution, Europe, Finland, hostplants, Mompha achlyognoma n. sp., Mompha cleidarotrypa n. sp., Montana, New Mexico, North America, Onagraceae, Oregon, Russia, Sweden, synonymy, taxonomy, USA, Washington.
Thiele, J. H. R. 1997. Charaxes jasius from Southern France (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(1): 24.
Abstract: The problematic status of Ascia monuste crameri Holland is discussed. Further evidence is submitted that supports its placement as a synonym of A. m. monuste (Linnaeus).
Key words: Caribbean, distribution, Florida, Nearctic, Neotropical, South America, Surinam, type locality, USA, West Indies.
Abstract: Megisto cymela (Cramer) and M. c. viola (Maynard) were studied to evaluate variation and subspeciation, using 274 specimens from Florida (239 from the peninsula and 65 from the panhandle) and 163 from the northern range limits in Ontario and Quebec. The few specimens suggesting multiple broods in Florida were either misidentified or probably mislabelled. The study sample and additional observations suggest a single flight period from late February to late April in the peninsula, late February to mid-June in the panhandle, and late May and June at the northern range limit in Canada. There are no constant morphological characteristics within the subspecific blend zone in northern Florida to suggest more than one species, but recognition of M. c. viola as a subspecies in peninsular Florida appears valid. Habitats and flight periods are also discussed.
Key words: Arkansas, Canada, cline, development, distribution, evolution, flight period, Georgia, Hermeuptychia, Louisiana, Nearctic, North America, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Quebec, symmpatry, USA, voltinism.
Abstract: Oviposition behavior under natural circumstances is described for Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer). Eggs laid on Aster lateriflorus (Compositae) in New York were reared to adults.
Key words: behavior, Compositae, hostplants, larvae, Nearctic, North America, USA.
Abstract: A scrubby limestone ridge habitat of Phyciodes batesii batesii (Reakirt) in eastern Ontario is described. At this location, eggs and larvae of P. b. batesii were found on Aster ciliolatus and A. cordifolius (Compositae), and were reared to adults on these foodplants. Larvae can be readily located by searching for plants with pale brownish, curled and ventrally rolled leaves. Larval development requires 30-40 days, while the pupae emerge after 5-7 days, but some larvae stop feeding when 7-10mm long.
Key words: Anacardiaceae, behavior, Betulaceae, Compositae, Cupressaceae, Canada, eggs, Georgia, Gramineae, habitat, hostplants, Labiatae, larvae, larval behavior, Nearctic, New York, North America, Ontario, oviposition, Pinaceae, pupae, Quebec, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, USA.
Abstract: Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) is reported using the cultivated annual, Cleome spinosa (Capparidaceae), as a larval foodplant in southern Ontario, Canada.
Key words: Ascia, Canada, Capparidaceae, Cruciferae, hostplants, Ontario, Nearctic, North America.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: Florida's Fabulous Butterflies, by T. C. Emmel. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(1): 38.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: The Tent Caterpillars, by T. D. Fitzgerald. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(1): 38.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Texas, by R. W. Neck. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(1): 38.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texas, by J. Tveten and G. Tveten. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(1): 38.
Abstract: An updated list of the butterflies and skippers of Florida is presented which treats 193 species (211 species and subspecies). English common names are provided. Type localities are given for species and subspecies described from Florida material. Also included are synonymous and infrasubspecific taxa that possess Florida type localities. The status (resident, naturalized resident, immigrant, accidental introduction, stray, or status unknown) and general geographic range (west, north, central, and south) of each species and subspecies in Florida are indicated. Endemic, as well as rare and imperiled taxa are recognized. Erroneous records are noted in an Appendix.
Key words: Caribbean, classification, Florida Keys, Hesperiidae, history, Lycaenidae, Nearctic, nomenclature, North America, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Riodinidae, taxonomy, USA, West Indies.
Abstract: Additional information on the ecology of Satyrium titus in Florida is provided, including habitat, hostplants, nectar sources, and flight period. Adult variation and the biogeography of the species in Florida are also briefly discussed.
Key words: Alabama, Asclepiadaceae, biogeography, distribution, ecology, Fagaceae, flight period, Georgia, habitat, Hemiptera, Hesperiidae, hostplants, immatures, larvae, Nearctic, nectar sources, North America, Nymphalidae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, USA.
Abstract: Life history and distribution notes are given for Pseudothyris sepulchralis (Boisduval) (Thyrididae) from the southeastern United States, particularly for Alabama and Florida, as well as Maryland. Descriptive notes and illustrations are given for immature stages, as well as the Smilax (Smilacaceae) hostplants. Previous hostplant records, on Clematis (Ranunculaceae) and Vitis (Vitaceae), are shown to be in error.
Key words: chaetotaxy, egg, immatures, larvae, morphology, Nearctic, North America, Palearctic, Ranunculaceae, Smilacaceae, Thyris, USA, Vitaceae.
Abstract: The potential caterpillar (Lepidoptera) fauna of the introduced woody plant Rhododendron ponticum (Linnaeus) was studied by foliage beating at one locality in Britain over one field season. Only a small number of larvae (n=21), corresponding to 11 species, were found on it, possibly only as incidental feeders. It is probably due to the 'recent' (in terms of geological time) introduction, connected with its taxonomic isolation and distinct chemical and physical leaf features. Two lepidopteran species may have undertaken host range expansion and seem to be using this woody plant as part of their ordinary diet (Ditula angustiorana (Haworth), Tortricidae; Phlogophora meticulosa (Linnaeus), Noctuidae).
Key words: Acleris, Autographa, Blastobasis, Blastobasidae, Caprifoliaceae, Cosmia, Ditula, ecology, England, Ericaceae, Fagaceae, Geometridae. herbivory, Hymenoptera, introduced plants, larvae, Lymantria, Lymantriidae, Mediterranean, Noctuidae, Orthosia, Palearctic, Peribatodes, Phlogophora, seasonality, Spain, Symphyta, Tortricidae.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: The Lepidoptera of Europe: a Distributional Checklist, edited by O. Karsholt and J. Razowski. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(2): 62.
Abstract: Immature stages of the knapweed root borer, Pterolonche inspersa (Pterolonchidae), from the Mediterranean region, are described for the first time in detail.
Key words: Africa, Agonoxenidae, Albania, Anathyrsa, Asia, Austria, biological control, Bosnia, Bulgaria, chaetotaxy, Compositae, Copromorphoidea, Cosmopterigidae, Cossidae, Croatia, Crossotocera, egg, Elachistidae, Europe, France, Gelechiidae, Gelechioidea, Greece, Hungary, Italy, larvae, Macedonia, Mediterranean, Moldova, Morocco, Nearctic, North America, Oecophoridae, Palearctic, pupae, Pyraloidea, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, Yponomeutoidea, Yugoslavia.
Abstract: Two new species of Glyphipterix sedge moths are described from North America: G. floridensis n. sp. from southern Florida and G. nordini n. sp. from the southcentral United States.
Key words: Arkansas, Florida, Glyphipterix floridensis n. sp., Glyphipterix nordini n. sp., Kentucky, Nearctic, North America, systematics.
Abstract: Two new species of Diploschizia sedge moths are described from Florida: D. kutisi n. sp. from north-central Florida and D. seminolensis n. sp. from southern Florida.
Key words:Diploschizia kutisi n. sp., Diploschizia seminolensis n. sp., Nearctic, North America, systematics
Abstract: The European Wockia asperipunctella (Bruand) is present in northeastern North America. Its biology in New England is noted in relation to its European populations.
Key words: Asia, Bahrlutia, Betulacceae, Blastobasidae, Canada, Connecticut, Europe, Galactica, Homadaula, Ilychytis, Maine, Massachusetts, Nearctic, Neotropical, New York, North America, Salicaceae, Urodus, USA, Zarcinia.
Abstract: The combining of eggs into a single batch by two Aglais cashmirensis (Kollar) females was observed during a trip to Nepal. The benefits of such "social" behavior are discussed. The early stages of this butterfly species are illustrated and compared against those of its close European relative Aglais urticae (Linnaeus).
Key words: Asia, eggs, defensive behavior, Europe, immatures, larva, larval behavior, oviposition, Palearctic, parasitoids, Urticaceae.
Abstract: The authors describe and figure the new species, Synanthedon hippophae sp. nov., from Qinghai, China, a pest of Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis (Eleagnaceae) trees.
Key words: Asia, Eleagnaceae, Oriental, Palearctic, Synanthedon hippophae n. sp., taxonomy.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: Die Tagfalter der Türkei, unter Brücksichtigung der angrenzenden Länder, by G. Hesselbarth, H. Van Oorschot, and S. Wagener. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(2): 80.
Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: The Butterflies of Greece, by L. N. Pamperis. Holarctic Lepidoptera 4(2): 80.
Lukhtanov, V. A., Kandul, N. P., DePrins, W. O., and D. van der Poorten. 1998. Karyology of Species of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) from Turkey: New Data and their Taxonomic Consequences (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 1-8.
Abstract: The karyotypes of the following taxa of the subgenus Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) from Turkey were investigated: P. (A.) alcestis (Zerny, 1932) (n=19),
P. (A.) demavendi (Pfeiffer, 1938) (n=ca. 66-71), P. (A.) antidolus (Rebel, 1901) (n=39-41), P. (A.) hopfferi (Herrich-Schaffer, ) (n=15), P. (A.) kurdistanicus
(Forster, 1961) (n=ca. 56-60), P. (A.) sp. (? huberti Carbonell, 1993) (n=22), P. (A.) merhaba De Prins et al., 1991 (n=16-17), P. (A.) aserbeidschanus turcicola (Kocak,
1977) (n=19-20), P. (A.) elbursicus zapvadi (Carbonell, 1993) (n=17-18), P. (A.) firdussii pseudactis (Forster, 1960) (n=22-25), P. (A.) cyaneus (Staudinger, 1899)
(n=18), P. (A.) turcicus (Kocak, 1977) (n=24) and P. (A.) iphigenia (Herrich-Schaffer, ) (n=13). The taxonomic position of the investigated taxa is discussed
according to their karyotypes.
Zusammenfassung: Die Karyotypen der folgenden Taxa der Untergattung Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) aus der Tiirkei wurden untersucht: P. (A.) alcestis (Zerny,
1932) (n=19), P. (A.) demavendi (Pfeiffer, 1938) (n=ca. 66-71), P. (A.) antidolus (Rebel, 1901) (n=39-41), P. (A.) hopfferi (Herrich-Schaffer, ) (n=15), P. (A.)
kurdistanicus (Forster, 1961) (n=ca. 56-60), P. (A.) sp. (? huberti Carbonell, 1993) (n=22), P. (A.) merhaba De Prins et al., 1991 (n=16-17), P. (A.) aserbeidschanus
turcicola (Kocak, 1977) (n=19-20), P. (A.) elbursicus zapvadi (Carbonell, 1993) (n=17-18), P. (A.) firdussii pseudactis (Forster, 1960) (n=22-25), P. (A.) cyaneus
(Staudinger, 1899) (n=18), P. (A.) turcicus (Ko9ak, 1977) (n=24) und P. (A.) iphigenia (Herrich-Schaffer, ) (n=13). Die taxonomische Stellung der untersuchten
Taxa wird Ihren Karyotypen entsprechend diskutiert.
Key words: Armenia, Asia Minor, chromosomes, distribution, genetics, Iran, Lebanon, Middle East, Near East, Palearctic, Rhopalocera, spermatogenesis, systematics,
Abstract: Records of Wockia asperipunctella (Bruand) from eastern and western Canada indicate a much wider distribution than suspected. They suggest that this European species is also native to North America and thus probably Holarctic. Variation in forewing coloration and genitalia are noted and illustrated.
Resume: De mentions canadiennes de Wockia asperipunctella (Bruand) démontrent qu'elle a une répartition néarctique beaucoup plus étendue qu'on ne soupçonnait. Ces données suggčrent que 1'espece de 1'Europe est probablement indigčne au continent nord-américain et holarctique. L'auteur décrit et illustre les variations de coloration des ailes et des genitalia.
Key words: Alberta, Betulaceae, Blastobasidae, British Columbia, Canada, Carposinidae, Cosmopterigidae, distribution, Europe, genitalia, Holarctic, hostplants.
Manitoba, Michigan. Ontario, North America, Pyralidae, Quebec, Salicaceae, Tortricidae, USA.
Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: The Butterflies of Pamir. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 14.
Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: Danske Dagsommerfugle, by M. Stoltze. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 14.
Abstract: Species of the noctuid moths in the genus Neumogenia, subfamily Amphipyrinae (tribe Amphipyrini), from the southwestern United States and adjacent
areas of northern Mexico, have large patches of brilliant iridescent gold or gold-green on their forewings. Some species of these "gold" moths, as well as those in a similar genus. Chalcopasta (tribe Stiriini), are discussed and illustrated.
Key words: Amphipyrinae, Amphipyrini, Basilodes, California, Chalcopasta, Chihuahua, Guerrero, Nearctic, Neumoegenia, New Mexico, North America, Plusiinae,
Puebla, Sonora, Stiriini, systematics, Tabasco, Texas.
Abstract: The temperate Taiwan endemic, Arichanna postflava Wileman, is noted and collection records are listed.
Key words: Asia, China, distribution, Himalayas, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Oriental, Palearctic, Sichuan, Yunnan.
Ferris, C. D. 1998. Book Review: Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories. 1, edited by V. K. Tuzov. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 18.
Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories. 1, edited by V. K. Tuzov. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 19.
Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: The Colour Identification Guide to Caterpillars of the British Isles: (Macrolepidoptera), by M. Young. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 20.
Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: Schmetterlinge und ihre Lebensräume: Arten - Gefährdung - Schutz. Schweiz und angrenzende Gebiete. Band 2, by Lepidopterologen Arbeitsgruppe. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 20.
Abstract: Life history notes are given for Odonestis pruni (Linnaeus) (Lasiocampidae), one of only two species of the Palearctic genus Odonestis. Notes and
illustrations are given for immature stages from rearings conducted in Germany on Prunus sp. (Rosaceae).
Keywords: Asia, egg, Europe, Fagaceae, Germany, immatures, Japan, larvae, morphology, Palearctic, Rosaceae, Spain.
Ross, G. N. 1998. Butterfly Social Clubs. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 22.
Abstract: The revised clearwing moth tribe Osminiini includes three genera in the Western Hemisphere: the monobasic genera Calasesia and Callithia (status revised - moved from Melittiini), and Osminia, which contains 11 species, four described herein (O. albipilosa n. sp., O. exigua n. sp., O. heitzmani n. sp., O. rubrialvus n. sp.) which were previously unknown. Keys to the genera and species are given, illustrations are provided for most adults, salient characters are figured, and species diagnoses and full descriptions of new species are provided.
Key words: Akaisphecia, Arizona, Aschistophleps, Asia Minor, Baja California, Calasesia, Callithia, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Colombia, Colorado, Cundinamarca,
Ethiopian. Fabaceae, Florida, Georgia, Guerrero, Heterosphecia, Hidalgo, Holarctic, hostplants, Jalisco, Kansas, Leguminosae, Melanosphecia, Melittia, Melittiini, Mexico, Missouri, Nearctic, Neotropical, New Mexico, New World, Oaxaca, Old World, Oriental, Osminia, Osminia albipilosa n. sp., Osminia exigua n. sp., Osminia heitzmani n. sp., Osminia rubrialvus n. sp., Palearctic, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Sesiini, Sonora, Texas, USA, Veracruz, Virginia, Zacatecas.
Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: The Natural History of Moths, by M. Young. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 34.
Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: The Butterflies of West Virginia and their Caterpillars, by T. J. Allen. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(1): 34.
Abstract: The rare 1903 publication, Illustrations of North American Lepidoptera, Sphingidae, authored by J. W. Weidemeyer, S. H. Calverley, and the well-known
American butterfly expert, W. H. Edwards, is discussed and its historical development noted. Only 14 copies were published in 1903, under the guidance of H. Skinner, although the 27 plates were actually printed from 1860 to 1866 (or to 1869). An appendix lists the current ownership of known copies.
Key words: bibliography, biography, Canary Islands, Caribbean, Catocala, Cuba, Deilephila, Erinnyis, history, Hyles, Limenitis, Nearctic, Neotropical, New World,
Noctuidae, North America, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Rhopalocera, South America, USA, West Indies.
Abstract: Zinaspa, a small genus of Arhopalini, is reported from southern China for the first time. A new species, Z. youngi n. sp., is described with brief notes on its host association and myrmecophilism.
Key words: ants, Arhopala, Arhopalini, Asia, Assam, biology, egg, Formicidae, Guangdong, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, India, larva, Leguminosae, Malaysia,
Myanmar, myrmecophily, Nepal, Oriental, Palearctic, pupa, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Surendra, taxonomy, Thaduka, Zinaspa youngi n.sp.
Ross, G. N. 1998. Butterfly Feeding Frenzies. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(2): 43-44.
G. O. 1998. Hemiargus
in the USA at Big Pine Key, Florida
(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(2): 45.
Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: Swallowtail Butterflies in China, by J.-W. Pai and H.-Y. Wang. Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(2): 46.
Abstract: Male Papilio palamedes frequently approach tiger swallowtail females of P. glaucus and P. canadensis in field experiments with tethered females. We observed one male actually copulate and (we later learned) transmit a spermatophore to a P. canadensis female under these field conditions at Highlands Hammock State Park. This observation is rare for interspecific mating behavior, but does emphasize the lack of total prezygotic reproductive isolation in the Papilionidae.
Key words: behavior, ecology, interspecific copulation, mating preference, Nearctic, reproductive isolation, USA.
Scriber, J. M., Deering, M. D., Francke, L. N., Wehling, W. F., and R. C. Lederhouse. 1998. Notes on Swallowtail Population Dynamics of Three Papilio Species in South-Central Florida (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 5(2): 53-62.
Abstract: South-central Florida (Highlands County) has experienced unusually intense wetland and wooded habitat loss due to agricultural, ranching, and developmental drainage programs since the 1960's. During the last 20-30 years, general declines have been observed in the numbers of swallowtail butterflies (Papilio), with the exception of woodland and hammock preserves such as Highlands Hammock State Park. Here we report the last 6 years of population size estimates of Papilio glaucus, P. palamedes, and P. troilus, the most common swallowtail butterfly species in this county. We found that the frequency of dark (mimetic) morph P. glaucus has remained high (31-44%) for the last 10 years for all spring and fall broods observed unlike the low proportions before the 1960's drainage projects. In addition, we report on lizard, spider, and mantid predation on large Papilio adults.
Key words: Asclepiadaceae, Battus, behavior, biology, Callosamia, Compositae, conservation, habitats, Hemiptera, hostplants, Iteaceae, Labiatae, Lauraceae,
Magnoliaceae, Mantidae, Miridae, Nearctic, nectar sources, predation, Satumiidae, spiders.
Abstract: Two species of clearwing moths in the genus Bembecia are described from northwest China: the new species Bembecia ningxiaensis Xu & Liu n.sp., from
Ningxia District, Qinghai Prov., and Bembecia insidiosa (Le Cerf), n. comb., from Qinghai Prov., the latter a new record for Qinghai Prov.
Key words: Asia, distribution, Oriental, hostplants, Palearctic, Bembecia ningxiaensis n.sp., Leguminosae, taxonomy.
Adams, J. K. 1999. Suppression of Four Heliothine Noctuid Species' "Names" (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 6(1): 22.
Emmel, T. C. 1999. Book Review: Butterflies Through Binoculars: the East, by J. Glassberg. Holarctic Lepidoptera 6(1): 36.
Abstract: The distribution and nature of sympatry and interaction of Limenitis weidemeyerii, Limenitis lorquini, and their "fridayi" hybrid were investigated in the
southwestern Great Basin during 1996-1998. L. weidemeyerii is univoltine, L. lorquini is at least bivoltine, and "fridayi" showed a peak flight corresponding to the peak flight of L. weidemeyerii and the first brood of L. lorquini. This "Mono" hybrid zone extends from the Wassuk Range in western Nevada to several canyons on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada (Devils Gate Summit to Lee Vining Creek) in eastern California where these Limenitis inhabit streamside willow associations. L. weidemeyerii occurs as pure populations to the east and L. lorquini occurs to the north, west, and south of the hybrid zone. The hybrid zone has a general east to west gradient of decreasing proportions of L. weidemeyerii and increasing proportions of L. lorquini, hybrids are most common at intermediate locations. The trend varies somewhat, in part due to the convoluted axis of the hybrid zone with several subaxes and the geographical proximity of populations of one or the other parentals. Both parental phenotypes span the width of the hybrid zone and represent 28-90% of populations sampled within the hybrid zone. "Fridayi" is intermediate in size to L. weidemeyerii and L. lorquini and exhibits a range of superficial and genital phenotypes between the parental species. Field caught samples of "fridayi" are female deficient compared to field caught samples of non-hybrid Limenitis. The Mono hybrid zone appears to be maintained by hybrid inferiority balanced by continued
dispersal of parentals into the zone. A shift in phenotypic proportions at some sites within the Mono hybrid zone has been apparent during the last 20 years. Another hybrid zone, the "Humboldt" hybrid zone, is known in northern Nevada in the Santa Rosa and Pine Forest ranges. This zone has not been well-studied, but appears phenotypically more stable than the Mono hybrid zone. Hybrids far outnumber parentals, and no sex-ratio skew is apparent. This zone, unlike the Mono hybrid zone, may be maintained by hybrid superiority with little or no dispersal into the zone by parentals. Due to the apparent stability of the Mono hybrid zone, an apparent reduction of gene flow through the hybrid zone, and at least some genetic incompatability. L. lorquini and L. weidemeyerii are considered separate species.
Key words: Arizona, Basilarchia, biogeography, California, distribution, genetics, genitalia, habitat, hostplants, hybrids, Limenitidini, Nearctic, Nevada, North America,
phenology, sex ratio, taxonomy, Utah.
Abstract: Historical data of Glyphipterix loricatella (Treitschke, 1833) are discussed, and the lectotype specimen is figured. The type locality is restricted as
"Budapest." Discovery of new colonies is reported.
Key words: Balkans, behavior, biogeography, biology, ecology, endangered species, Glyphipterix, lectotype, Romania, Serbia, taxonomy.
Abstract: Philotiella leona Hammond & McCorkle, n. sp. (Lycaenidae), is described from the volcanic ash fields of the Oregon Cascade Range. Both sexes are compared with P. s. speciosa in wing color pattern and genitalia. In addition, preliminary comparisons suggest that the bohartorum-purisima complex of subspecies now assigned to P. speciosa may prove to be a third species of Philotiella for North America. The larval foodplant and ecology of P. leona are also discussed.
Key words: behavior, California, distribution, ecology, Euphilotes, flight behavior, hostplants, Icaricia, Nearctic, Nevada, North America, Onagraceae, oviposition, Philotiella leona n. sp., Polygonaceae, Polyommatinae, taxonomy.
Abstract: The Institute of Systematics and Experimental Zoology, of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), in Krakow, Poland, is given a historical review, particularly as this pertains to its Lepidoptera collections.
Key words: collections, Europe, history, museums, taxonomy.
Ritland, D. B., and L. P. Brower. 2000. Mimicry-related Variation in Wing Color of Viceroy Butterflies (Limenitis archippus): a Test of the Model-Switching Hypothesis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(1): 5-11.
Abstract: The viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus) is well known as a superb mimic of its chemically defended model, the monarch (Danaus plexippus). However, viceroy populations in both the southeastern and southwestern United States appear to have switched phenotypically from mimicking the tawny-orange monarch to mimicking two subspecies of a darker mahogany-brown model, the queen (Danaus gilippus). This paper, combining field censuses and computer-assisted wing-color analyses, supports the hypothesis of "model-switching" by the viceroy. Specifically, we demonstrate that in the southeastern United States, a latitudinal cline in viceroy wing color (darkening from orange to mahogany southward from Georgia through Florida) is geographically correlated with a latitudinal shift in relative abundance of monarchs and queens, with the latter becoming more prevalent southward. We therefore view the cline in viceroy coloration as an adaptive adjustment to a latitudinal selective gradient associated with danaine relative abundance. This work supports the hypothesis that the viceroy's mimetic wing-color pattern is regionally "fine-tuned," phenotypically tracking different models in different areas.
Key words: Basilarchia, clinal change, Danaus, geographic variation, hybrid zone, introgression, monarch, Nearctic.
Emmel, T. C. 2000. Book reviews: Butterflies of Islamabad and the Murree Hills, by Syed Azhar Hasan, and Biodiversity of Pakistan, ed. by Shahzad A. Mufti, Charles A. Woods, and Syed Azhar Hasan. Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(1): 12.
Calhoun, J. V., Slotten, J. R., and M. H. Salvato. 2000. The Rise and Fall of Tropical Blues in Florida: Cyclargus ammon and Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(1): 13-20.
Abstract: Cyclargus ammon (Lucas) has been established on Big Pine Key, Florida since at least 1997. The species arrived from Cuba, possibly with the assistance of a meteorological event. It inhabits rockland pine forests in Florida and is known to utilize as hostplants Acacia pinetorum, Acacia famesiana and Caesalpinia pauciflora (Fabaceae). The habitat, abundance, nectar sources and life history are detailed. The decline of endemic Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri (Comstock & Huntington) is also discussed. Once locally common in South Florida, there were no verified records of this subspecies during the period of March 1992-October 1999. It is now known to occur at a single location in the lower Florida Keys. Loss of habitat through coastal development is the likely cause of this decline, perhaps exacerbated by other factors such as succession, tropical storms, and mosquito control. Surveys are required to determine the current status of C. t. bethunebakeri in Florida.
Key words: Anaea, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Bahamas, biology, Cuba, Cycadaceae, distribution, Ephyriades, Eumaeus, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Hemiargus, Hesperia,
Hesperiidae. hostplants, Leptotes, life history, Nearctic, Neotropical, Phoebis, Pieridae, Pinaceae, Ministrymon, Sapindaceae, Strymon, West Indies.
Abstract: On transect butterfly surveys during 1990-99, we recorded northern blues (Lycaeides idas nabokovi) in forest openings in northeastern Wisconsin, Kamer blues (L. melissa samuelis) in barrens in central and northwestern Wisconsin, and melissa blues (L. m. melissa) in prairies in western Minnesota and adjoining North and South Dakota. Each taxon was surveyed within that part of its range where only that taxon is known to occur. We compared identification features described in field guides to our photographs of multiple individuals of all three taxa. These features were subtle and overlapping among taxa in midwestern individuals. Accurate field identification is applicable to populations but not isolated individuals, and must be based on a number of individuals, in conjunction with range and habitat characteristics. All three taxa tolerated some habitat degradation, based on their nectar visits to exotic plants and the vegetative characteristics of occupied sites. But northern and Karner blues were localized in distribution, where they might reach relatively high densities (individuals observed per hour), while the melissa blue occurred in more vegetation types but generally lower densities. Density (i.e., detectability) of Karner and melissa blues (the two analyzable taxa) increased with rising temperature and during later hours in the survey day and decreased with increasing wind speed. Males of sexed individuals averaged 70% for Karner blue and 78% for melissa blue. Although Karner and melissa blues in this study occurred in similar latitudinal ranges, they did not show consistent seasonal correspondence in their flight period curves. The single observation date of northern blues, which had a relatively high density, fell between two low-density Karner blue dates (one in the spring generation, the other in the summer), and consisted of 83% males.
Key words: behavior, conservation, detectability, diel periodicity, endangered species, Ericaceae, Everes, exotic plants, Fabaceae, field identification, flight period, Great Lakes, hostplants, Karner blue, Leguminosae, Lycaeides, Melissa blue, Minnesota, Nearctic, nectar visits, North Dakota, oviposition, phenology, Polyommatinae, prairie, sex ratio, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Heppner, J. B. 2000. Book review: Systematics of North American Butterflies, by Thomas C. Emmel (editor). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(1): 32.
Abstract: Females of Papilio iroilus Linnaeus and Papilio palamedes Drury (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), two closely related swallowtail butterflies, oviposit almost exclusively on a few woody plant species in the family Lauraceae. While geographic patterns of preference differ among Lauraceae species, the butterflies rarely oviposit on any plant species outside the Lauraceae. The role of host plant chemistry in stimulating oviposition was assessed by extracting the preferred host foliage of the respective butterfly species, spraying the extracts and fractions on various substrates, and assessing oviposition relative to controls. P. troilus and P. palamedes were stimulated to oviposit on filter paper or non-host leaves sprayed with polar extracts of their primary host plants, indicating clearly that leaf chemistry, detectable as contact chemosensory cues, plays a significant role in their oviposition choices. Dependence on chemical oviposition elicitors found only in the foliage of the host plants may explain the behavioral fidelity to Lauraceae shown by these two oligophagous butterflies.
Key words: behavior, Florida, Michigan, Nearctic, North America, Ohio, oviposition behavior, Papilio.
Tesar, D., and J. M. Scriber. 2000. Growth Season Constraints in Climatic Cold Pockets: Tolerance of Subfreezing Temperatures and Compensatory Growth by Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly Larvae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(2): 39-44.
Abstract: The combination of limited seasonal thermal unit accumulations (degree days) and freezing mortality or non-freezing cryoinjury from late spring/early fall freezes in climatically constrained areas has been hypothesized to be major determining factors for geographic range limits and degree of polyphagy in herbivorous insects. We test the hypothesis that cold stress such as from sudden freezes has direct or indirect (delayed) negative impact on egg and larval survival and growth of tiger swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus. Nine treatment regimes with three temperatures (-14°C, -8°C, 4°C) and three exposure durations (8h, 24h. or 48h) were tested using 14 different butterfly families. Negative effects were observed for egg viability, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar larval survival and growth subsequent to cold treatments, with more serious impact at colder temperatures and longer durations. These results support the hypothesis that, if severe, late spring freezes can select strongly against these vulnerable, non-diapausing stages. However, numerous physiological and ecological adaptations are known to exist for Papilio eggs, larvae, and pupae, which maximize successful completion of the generation before winter. A new one reported here is faster subsequent growth rates in surviving larvae which were exposed to the cold stress for the longest duration.
Key words: freeze tolerance, growth, Nearctic, North America, Papilio, physiology, seasonally, thermal constraints.
Abstract: Schinia hardwickorum n. sp., S. sanrafaeli n. sp., and S. mcfarlandi n. sp., are described from specimens collected in Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, respectively. Schinia sanrafaeli has also been taken in western New Mexico. The three new species are compared to other taxa in their species groups.
Key words: Arizona, Asteraceae, Colorado, distribution, Fabaceae, hostplants, Nearctic, New Mexico, North America, Schinia hardwickorum n. sp., Schinia mcfarlandi n. sp., Schinia sanrafaeli n. sp., systematics, Utah, USA.
Abstract: Autographa flavida new sp. (Noctuidae: Plusiinae), related to Autographa speciosa Ottolengui, is described from Colorado. Adults and male genital structures of both species are illustrated.
Key words: Autographa flavida n. sp., badlands fauna, loopers, Nearctic, North America, riparian.
Adamski, D. 2000. A New Blastobasis Associated with Acorns and Pecans in the Southeastern and Southcentral United States (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae: Blastobasinae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(2): 51-53.
Abstract: Blastobasis taurusella n. sp. is described from southeastern and southwestern United States and is associated with feeding in pecans of Carya illnoinensis (Wangenheim) (Juglandaceae) and acorns of Quercus alba Linnaeus (Fagaceae). A photograph of the imago, illustrations of wing venation, and male and female genitalia are provided. A mediolongitudinal process on the male seventh sternum, not known previously in Coleophoridae, is described.
Key words: Blastobasidae, Blastobasini, Blastobasis taurusella n. sp., Fagaceae, hostplants, Juglandaceae, Nearctic, North America, oaks, pecans, taxonomy, USA.
Powell, J. A., Russell, P., Russell, S., and F.A.H. Sperling. 2000. Northward Expansion of Two Mint-Feeding Species of Pyrausta in California (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 7(2): 55-58.
Abstract: Pyrausta laticlavia (G. & R.), which may have been a native species as far north as Monterey County, expanded its range northward into the San Francisco Bay area (1990) and Sacramento Valley (1993), after at least a century of residency in southern California. P. volupialis (Grote), colonized Los Angeles County from Arizona by 1991 and spread into the San Francisco Bay area by 1997. Both have been reared from larvae feeding on Rosemary (Rosmarinus offidnalis L.; Lamiaceae). Movement of nursery stock may account for the rapid spread of P. volupialis, but global warming may be a factor in recent adaptation to more northern climes by these and several other Lepidoptera reviewed here.
Key words: Arizona, distribution, global warming, hostplants, introduced insects, Lamiaceae, life history, Mexico, Nearctic, Pyraustinae, urban insect survey.
Abstract: Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (Poey), newly reported for the mainland United States and Florida, is provided with further observations and photographs on the life history of E. sagra (Poey), along with additional information on Perigonia lusca (Fabricius).
Key words: biology, Brazil, Caribbean, Cuba, distribution, egg, habitat, hammocks, hostplants, larva, life history, Mexico, Neotropical, pupa, West Indies.
Abstract: The Wah'Kon-Tah Prairie Preserve is located in southwestern Missouri and is a remnant of the once extensive Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem. The preserve consists of 2,332 acres (944 hectares) within the Osage Plains-Flint Hills Ecoregion of Missouri. The preserve is owned by The Nature Conservancy (Missouri Office) but managed by both the Conservancy and the Missouri Department of Conservation, El Dorado Springs Division. Between May and October 1998, the author live on the newly acquired Thoreson Ranch that linked the original Wah'Kon-Tah Prairie Preserve and Mo-Ko Prairie Preserve. Daily butterfly inventories were conducted and recorded weekly. The cumulative total of species observed was 74 (71 during this survey, 2 by others, and 1 by the author in 2002). Tallgrass Prairie management involving haying, burning, and tree removal as they affect butterflies in general and the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Drury)) in particular are discussed. The possible role of micronutrients and/or phytochemicals procured through nectaring by regal fritillary butterflies is discussed. Selected photographs of habitat and the regal fritillary are included.
Key words: conservation, bison, burning, ecology, ecoregion, El Dorado Springs, fire, Flint Hills, grazing, haying, Great Plains, Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, maintenance, micronutrients, Midwest, Mo-Ko Prairie, Nearctic, North America, Osage Plains, phytochemicals, regal fritillary, Speyeria, Tallgrass Prairie, The Nature Conservancy, Thoreson Ranch.
Abstract: Butterfly habitats typical of the eastern United States are presented in 33 color illustrations. For each habitat, a few of the butterflies that reside therein are noted.
Key words: butterflies, conservation, distribution, Hesperioidea, Nearctic, North America, Papilionoidea, Rhopalocera, skippers.
Landry, J-F. 2003 (2005). Two New Species of Coleophora from the New World, with Record of a New Hostplant Family for Coleophorines (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae: Coleophorinae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 9-15.
Abstract: Coleophora xyridella n. sp. is described from specimens from Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and South Carolina. Four Mississippi specimens were reared from larval cases found on seed heads of Xyris sp. (Xyridaceae), which represent a new hostplant family for Coleophorine larvae. This new species is superficially similar to the widespread C. cratipennella both as adult and as larval case but differs markedly in male and female genitalia. The papillae anales are extraordinarily elongate and sclerotized, protruding characteristically from the abdomen of undissected females. Coleophora xyridella belongs to the caespititiella species group based on the presence of a strengthening carina on the female tergum VIII, and the monocot seed-feeding habits of the larva. Coleophora cisoriella n. sp. is described from Brazil (Minas Gerais). It is closely related to C. xyridella in the structures of the male and female genitalia and thus presumed to belong to the same species group. Its host- plant is unknown but it is presumed to be seeds of a monocot.
Key words: Amazonas, biology, Brazil, Coleophora xyridella n. sp., Coleophora cisoriella n. sp., Florida, Goias, hostplants, Louisiana, Minas Gerais, Mississippi, Nearctic, South Carolina, taxonomy, USA, Xyridaceae.
Emmel, T. C. 2003 (2005). Book review: Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories, Volume 2, libytheidae, Danaidae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae, by V. K. Tuzov, P.V. Bogdanov, S.V. Churkin, A.V. Dantchenko, A.L. Devyatkin, V.S. Murzin, G.D. Samodurov, and A.B. Zhdanko. Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 16.
Swengel, A. B., and S. R. Swengel. 2003 (2005). Influences of Timing and Population Density on the Sex Ratio of the Regal Fritillary, Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 17-30.
Abstract: In summer during 1988-99, we conducted 735 hrs and 1416 km of transect butterfly surveys at 116 grasslands in the range of the regal fritillary, Speyeria idalia (Drury), grouped into four subregions: (1) Wisconsin, (2) northwestern Iowa and adjacent Minnesota, (3) northwestern Minnesota and adjacent North Dakota, and (4) western Missouri. We recorded 22,685 regal fritillaries at 84 sites; 92% of the 20,968 sexed individuals were males. First female emergence typically followed first male emergence by about 1-3 weeks in subregion 1. In each subregion, male density (individuals/hr) showed a single mid-flight peak, while females increased gradually and linearly. The strongest and most consistent correlation for percent unsexed individuals was negative with year. During most of the flight period, the observed "sex ratio" (percent males of sexed individuals) was strongly male-biased. Sex ratio correlated significantly and negatively with date, consistent with eclosure by males earlier than females. But in all subregions, the strongest correlation for sex ratio was negative with female density, both in the entire survey period and prime (main) flight, which by definition had positive male and female densities that did not vary significantly by date. In most subregions, sex ratio covaried significantly with male density, both over the entire survey period and during prime flight. Observed sex ratios relate to relative densities of males and females actually present but also suggest a tendency for females to become less detectable at higher male densities. Since the observed range of densities was much greater for males than females in all subregions, females appeared to adjust their detectability (i.e., behavior) based on male density but not vice versa. In addition, more females may actually be present in a site earlier in the flight than when highest observed female densities occur.
Key words: aestivation, behavior, conservation, density dependence, detectability, endangered species, flight period, Iowa, Midwest, Minnesota, Missouri, Nearctic, Nebraska, North America, North Dakota, phenology, prairie, protandry, seasonality, sex ratio, Speyeria, sociality, USA, Wisconsin.
Abstract: Some biological notes are given on the plaster bagworm, Phereoeca uterella (Walsinghmam) (formerly known as Tineola walsinghami Busck and Phereoeca dubitatrix Meyrick), from Florida. Larvae mainly are detritus feeders, making distinctive larval cases that are often found attached to house walls.
Key words: Africa, Australia, biology, Brazil, California, Canary Islands, Caribbean, Congo, India, Malaysia, Neotropical, North America, Panama, Phereoeca, Praeacedes, St. Thomas, South America, Sri Lanka, Tinea, Tineola, Uganda, USA, Virgin Islands, West Indies.
Abstract: Two new species of Dioryctria in the zimmermani group are described from California. Dioryctria westerlandi n. sp. (type locality, Placer Co.) occurs in the yellow pine forest plant community of montane California (1600-2286m elevation), from the Warner Mts. to the San Jacinto Mts., where Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), its presumed hostplant, occurs. Dioryctrya fordi n. sp. (type locality, Kern Co.) occurs in the foothill woodland plant community on both sides of the Central Valley and in the Kern River drainage (442-914m elevation), where gray pine (Pinus sabiniana), its presumed hostplant, occurs. Adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated for both species.
Key words: Central Valley, Coast Ranges, Dioryctria fordi n. sp., Dioryctria westerlandi n. sp., foothill woodland, habitat, Nearctic, North America, Pinaceae, pines,
San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Warner Mountains, yellow pine forest, USA.
Valella, P., and J. M. Scriber. 2003 (2005). Latitudinal Variation in Photoperiodic Induction of Pupal Diapause in the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio troilus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 37-41.
Abstract: The influence of photoperiod on the induction of facultative diapause was determined for a southern Ohio population of Papilio troilus. We also investigated the extent of population differences in critical photoperiod for induction of diapause for Michigan, Georgia/South Carolina, and Florida P. troilus. Larvae from several families from each population were reared from neonates to pupae under varying photo:scotoperiods on sassafras or red bay foliage with other conditions held constant. The critical photoperiod for diapause was between 14.0 and 14.5h of light in the Ohio population. This compares with 14.5-15.0h for southern Michigan population, 13.5-14.0h for the Georgia/South Carolina population and 12.0-12.5h for the Florida population. Some family-to-family variation in response to photoperiod cues was observed. However, a clear general pattern of higher latitude populations having longer critical photoperiods was evident.
Key words: clines, diapause induction, Florida, Georgia, latitudinal cline, Michigan, Nearctic, North America, Ohio, photoperiod, physiological ecology, USA
Heppner, J. B. 2003 (2005). Book reviews: The Butterflies of Turkmenistan, by Vadim V. Tshikolovets, and The Butterflies of Sakhalin in Nature, by J. Asahi, S. Kanda, M. Kawata, and Y. Kohara. Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 42.
Abstract: Diapausing pupae of the spicebush swallowtail butterfly, Papilio troilus Linnaeus, were individually set up in screened cages under one of 4 temperature and 2 photoperiod treatments (14°,18°,22°, or 26°; in 18:6 or 12:12 photo/scotophase). The breaking of diapause and eclosion of adult butterflies was significantly faster at 26°C (13-24 days) than 22°C (18-36 days) and 18°C (36-69 days) regardless of the photoperiod conditions. As of 88 days, none of the pupae eclosed as adults in either 14°C chamber (18:6 or 12:12). While diapause induction for these Ohio populations was known to be determined in the larval stages by a critical photoperiod of less than 15 hours, it did not matter whether the photophase was 12h or 18h for termination of diapause and eclosion of adults. In every treatment (n = 6), the majority of the first 10 individuals eclosed were males, suggesting that protandry is likely In the field.
Key words: biology, diapause termination, hostplants, Lauraceae, Michigan, Nearctic, North America, Ohio, photoperiod, pupal diapause, scotophase, spicebush swallowtail, temperature, USA.
Abstract: The Lauraceae-specialist swallowtail butterfly, Papilio palamedes Drury, has never been reported using a prominent tree species like silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis, Lauraceae) in central Florida. This tree grows in the central white, arid, sandy habitats and its dense hairy/pubescent leaves distinguish it from the glabrous hammock-dwelling red bay (Persea borbonia var. borbonia) and the wetland/swamp-dwelling swamp bay (Persea palustris). We examined the suitability of these two plant species for larval survival and growth using split-brood bioassays. No significant differences in survival, pupal weight, overall duration of development or growth rates were observed. Whatever prevents silk bay from being used as a natural host for the P. palamedes butterfly is not known.
Key words: arid sand habitats, defenses, ecological monophagy, habitats, hostplants, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Nearctic, North America, USA, wetlands.
Abstract: A year-long survey was conducted in the Florida pine rocklands of Everglades National Park and the National Key Deer Refuge to determine the status of two potentially threatened butterfly subspecies; the Florida Leafwing, Anaea troglodyta floridalis F. Johnson & Comstock, and Bartram's Hairstreak, Strymon acis bartrami (Comstock & Huntington). These butterfly species appear so specialized on their sole host, Croton linearis Jacq.(Euphorbiaceae), that fluctuations in this plant's density and life-cycle (i.e. in response to climatic conditions and fire influence) appear to dictate the population behavior and status of the butterflies. This study encountered stable populations of all three taxa in the remaining pinelands of Big Pine Key, Florida. Strymon a. bartrami was particularly common on Big Pine Key during periods of active C. linearis flower bloom in the open pineland survey areas. Strymon a. bartrami was not observed in the Everglades during this survey. The status of this butterfly on the mainland should be viewed with concern. Anaea t. floridalis was frequent in the transitional pineland/hardwood hammock ecosystems, during drier parts of the survey, both on Big Pine and on the mainland.
Key words: Big Pine Key, bionomics, ecology, forestry, Long Pine Key, Nearctic, Neotropical, West Indies.
Emmel, T. C. 2003 (2005). Book review: The Butterflies of Uzbekistan, by Vadim V. Tshikolovets. Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 52.
Salvato, M. H. 2003 (2005). Butterfly Conservation and Hostplant Fluctuations: The Relationship Between Strymon acis bartrami and Anaea troglodyta floridalis on Croton linearis in Florida (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae And Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 53-57
Emmel, T. C. 2003 (2005). Book review: The Aurelian Legacy: British Butterflies and Their Collectors, by Michael A. Salman. Holarctic Lepidoptera 10(1-2): 58.
Abstract: The virtually unknown butterfly fauna of the western Karakoram, centered on the Hunza Valley, with extremely difficult terrain and with precipitous mountain slopes and many peaks of 20,000ft to 25,000ft and above, was studied from 1994 to 2000. Field work in July and/or August from 1994 to 2000 on butterflies was carried out in 24 localities along the Karakoram Highway (KKH), from Gilgit to the border with China (Khunjerab Pass), plus side valleys, with particular attention paid to high altitude sites over 13,OOOft.The interface between Palearctic and Oriental faunistic zones was defined. Khunjerab Pass was worked several times on each visit; other high altitude sites assessed including Mintaka and Kilik passes to China and the Irshad Uwin and Dilsun passes to Wakhan, Afghanistan. Several high altitude species, particularly of the genera Parnassius, Colias, Karanasa, Melitaea, Sipora and Polyommatus, were not found below 15,000ft. Records from these four passes broke new ground since they lie in territory off-limits for over half a century until 1999. Three visits were made to the Deosai Plateau, Baltistan, 150 miles SSE of Hunza and isolated from it by high mountains and extensive glaciers. A total of 109 butterfly species were recorded from the Hunza complex and Deosai combined; and, of the Deosai fauna of 28 taxa recorded, 9 (32%) diverged from the Hunza fauna. Altitudinal distributions for each species were tabulated. Forty species were recorded from a single foray into Wakhan (NE Afghanistan): 11 (27.5%) of these were never been found in seven years' work in Hunza, underlining the sharpness of the distinction between Karakoram and Pamir faunas across a very short distance. Preliminary lists of angiosperm plants for Khunjerab Pass and the approach to Kilik Pass are presented. Actual and potential habitat degradation by over-grazing at high altitude was assessed, at worst, as severe. All records obtained will serve as reference points for future studies on butterflies of this region of the Karakoram.
Key words: Afghanistan, Asia, Baltistan, Baluchistan, Bhutan, biogeography, Central Asia, China, Chitral, Diamar, distribution, ecology, Ghizer, Gilgit, Gojal, Hesperiidae, Himalayas, Hindu Kush, India, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kohistan, Lycaenidae, Nepal, Nymphalidae, Palearctic, Pamirs, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Rhopalocera, Riodinidae, Sikkim, Sinkiang, Skardu, Tajikistan, taxonomy, Tibet, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Wakhan, Waziristan.
Abstract: Larval hostplants of 169 species of butterflies (89% of the resident fauna) and many additional subspecies are reported for the state of Nevada. These encompass more than 3800 individual records including nearly 400 species of plants in 33 families. Although these are largely of plant taxa recorded elsewhere, more than 300 (40% of butterfly/plant combinations) are newly reported at the species-level taxonomy of both plant and butterfly, including 39 new generic records and seven new familial records for the butterfly in question. A large proportion of the newly reported associations are due to this investigation being conducted in a region with virtually no previous information.