TROPICAL LEPIDOPTERA, ISSN 1048-8138 (1990-2007) and


Contents and Abstracts

MAY 1990 Volume 1, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1990 Volume 1, Number 2
MAY 1991 Volume 2, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1991 Volume 2, Number 2
MAY 1992 Volume 3, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1992 Volume 3, Number 2
JUNE 1992 Volume 3, Supplement 1
MAY 1993 Volume 4, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1993 Volume 4, Number 2
JUNE 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 2
SEPTEMBER 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 3
AUGUST 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 4
MAY 1994 Volume 5, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1994 Volume 5, Number 2
MAY 1995 Volume 6, Number 1 (Part 1)
MAY 1995 Volume 6, Number 1 (Part 2)
NOVEMBER 1995 Volume 6, Number 2
MAY 1996 Volume 7, Number 1 (Part 1)
NOVEMBER 1996 Volume 7, Number 2
MAY 1997 Volume 8, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Number 2
JUNE 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 1
DECEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 2
DECEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 3
MAY 1998 Volume 9, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Number 2
NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Supplement 1
NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Supplement 2
MAY 1999 Volume 10, Number 1
NOVEMBER 1999 Volume 10, Number 2
NOVEMBER 1999 Volume 10, Supplement 1
MAY/November 2000 Volume 11, Number 1-2
MAY/November 2001 Volume 12, Number 1-2
DECEMBER 2001 Volume 12, Supplement 1
MAY/November 2002 Volume 13, Number 1-2
MAY/November 2003 Volume 14, Number 1-2
MAY/November 2004 Volume 15, Number 1-2
MAY/November 2005 Volume 16, Number 1-2
MAY/November 2006 Volume 17, Number 1-2
JUNE 2008 Volume 18, Number 1
DECEMBER 2008 Volume 18 No. 2
JUNE 2009 Volume 19, No. 1
DECEMBER 2009 Volume 19, No. 2
JUNE 2010 Volume 20, No. 1
DECEMBER 2010 Volume 20, No. 2
JUNE 2011 Volume 21, No. 1
DECEMBER 2011 Volume 21, No. 2
JUNE 2012 Volume 22, No. 1
DECEMBER 2012 Volume 22, No. 2
JUNE 2013 Volume 23, No. 1
DECEMBER 2013 Volume 23, No. 2
DECEMBER 2013 Volume 23, No. 2, Supplement 1
JUNE 2014 Volume 24, No. 1
DECEMBER 2014 Volume 24, No. 2
JUNE 2015 Volume 25, No. 1
DECEMBER 2015 Volume 25, No. 2

MAY 1990 Volume 1, Number 1

Emmel, T. C., and G. T. Austin. 1990. The tropical rain forest butterfly fauna of Rondônia, Brazil: species diversity and conservation. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 1-12.

Abstract: The state of Rondônia in west central Brazil apparently has the highest reported butterfly diversity in the world, with an estimated 1,500-1,600 species living within several square kilometers in the central part of that state. A preliminary checklist of over 800 identified species is given, and some of the factors contributing to this diversity are described. The tropical rain forest in this area is being rapidly cleared for development and the creation of one or more inviolate biological preserves is urgently needed in order to save a living sample of the incredibly diverse fauna and flora for study by future generations.

Key words: Amazon Basin, butterfly faunas, Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, rain forest, Riodinidae.

Krizek, G. O. 1990. Butterfly photography in Morocco. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 13-20.

Abstract: Morocco, on the boundary between the Palearctic and the tropical African zones, supports the richest butterfly fauna in all of North Africa, with 140 species and subspecies. Discussed and illustrated here are 21 species, including two endemics.

Key words: Anthocharis, Aricia, Autographa, Azanus, Carcharodes, Coenonympha, Colotis, Cupido, Euchloe, Euphydryas, Glaucopsyche, Gonepteryx, Hesperiidae, High Atlas, hostplants, Hyponephele, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Lysandra, Melanargia, Melitaea, Middle Atlas, Nordmannia, Nymphalidae, Pandoriana, Papilionidae, Philotes, Pieridae, Plebicula, Pseudochazara, Pyrgus, Tarucus, Thersamonia, Zegris, Zerynthia, Zizeeria.

Shaffer, J. C. 1990. Pyralidae of Aldabra Atoll 1. Peoriinae. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 21-24.

Abstract: Anerastia nigropunctata Legrand (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Anerastiinae [auctorum]) is transferred to Ematheudes Zeller in the Peoriinae and redescribed. It is the only peoriine moth known from Aldabra Atoll, its type locality. Previously listed as endemic to the Aldabra Group of atolls, its range is extended to include Madagascar. Photographs of wing pattern (color figure), male and female genitalia, and male antenna [SEM] are included. This paper is the first of a planned series on the Aldabra Pyralidae (sensu stricto; see Minet, 1981).

Key words: Ematheudes nigropunctata (Legrand), Lepidoptera, Madagascar.

Urich, F. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1990. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 1. Pierella hyalinus fusimaculata (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 25-26.

Abstract: The life history of Pierella hyalinus fusimaculata (Brown) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) is described from material reared in captivity on grasses in eastern Trinidad. The complete life cycle takes 84 days (8 days in the egg stage, 60 days in four larval instars, and 16 days as a pupa).

Key words: Caligo, Gramineae, grasses, Heliconiaceae, immature stages, life history, Marantaceae, Nymphalidae.

Urich, F. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1990. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 2. Antirrhaea philoctetes (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 27-32.

Abstract: The life history of Antirrhaea philoctetes (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae) is described from material reared on palms in the family Arecaceae (=Palmae). The hemispherical egg is yellowish light green and 2.5 mm in diameter. There are five larval instars. The mature larva differs from those of other described Antirrhaea species in its elaborate pattern of maroon and yellow patches. Each larval instar bears a pair of long whiplike tails that compose half the length of the body. The pupa is mottled and patterned with tan, brown, and some green, resembling a crumpled leaf. The complete life cycle takes 70 days at ambient temperatures in Trinidad (7 days in the egg stage, 50 days in five larval instars, and 13 days as a pupa).

Key words: Antirrhaea, Arecaceae, Caerois, immature stages, life history, Morphinae, Morpho, Palmae, palms, Pierella.

Emmel, T. C., and R. Boender. 1990. An extraordinary hybrid gynandromorph of Heliconius melpomene subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 33-34.

Heppner, J. B. 1990. Sericostola to Glyphipterigidae, with a new species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Copromorphoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 35-38.

Abstract: The Neotropical genus Sericostola Meyrick, 1927, and its type-species, S. rhodanopa Meyrick, 1927, from Colombia, are given a modern description and reassigned from Yponomeutidae to Glyphipterigidae. Nearest relatives appear to be in the genus Cotaena Walker or Myrsila Walker. A new species from Costa Rica, S. semibrunnea, is described and assigned to Sericostola.

Key words: Brenthia, Choreutidae, Colombia, Cotaena, Myrsila, Neotropical, Sericostola semibrunnea n. sp., Yponomeutidae.

Heppner, J. B. 1990. New Birthana from Taiwan (Lepidoptera: Immidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 39-41.

Abstract: Birthana taiwana, new species, is described from Kenting Park, southern Taiwan, as the first species of this genus from Taiwan.

Key words: Birthana taiwana n. sp., China, India, New Guinea, Oriental, Imma, Immoidea, Tortricidae, Zacorisca.

Kutis, J. S., and J. B. Heppner. 1990. Gynandromorph of Nacophora quernaria in Florida (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 42.

NOVEMBER 1990 Volume 1, Number 2

Emmel, T. C., and J. B. Heppner. 1990. Lepidoptera Collecting in Taiwan. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2):43-52.

Abstract: Taiwan, located near the east coast of mainland China, supports a rich butterfly and moth fauna across its range of temperate and tropical habitats. This paper reports general observations made on Lepidoptera during a July-August 1988 expedition across Taiwan, with comments on some of the most outstanding collecting areas.

Key words: Acraea, Atrophaneura, Borbo, Byasa, Calaenorrhinus, Celastrina, Cercyonis, Choreutidae, Delias, Eurema, Graphium, Hebomoia, Heliophorus, Hesperiidae, Histia, Hypolimnas, Isoteinon, Kallima, Kaniska, Lycaenidae, Lymantriidae, Megisba, Melanitis, Menelaides, Minois, Neominois, Neptis, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Penthema, Perina, Pieridae, Polygonia, Polytremis, Precis, Saptha, Suaspes, Symbrenthia, Timelaea, Tirumala, Zygaenidae.

Emmel, T. C., and J. L. Nation, Jr. 1990. Phoretic mites (Acari) on a Taiwanese skipper, Isoteinon lamprospilus formosanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 53-54.

Minno, M. C. 1990. A new species of Choranthus from Hispaniola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 55-58.

Abstract: Choranthus maria is described from a single female reared from a larva found feeding on the leaves of a young Sabal palm. The type locality is a tropical hardwood forest near Sosua, on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic, Hispaniola. The closest relatives of C. maria are C. schwartzi and perhaps C. melissa which are also endemic to Hispaniola. These other species differ from C. maria in color pattern, morphology of the female genitalia, biogeographical distribution, and probably larval hostplants.

Key words: Achylodes, Anastrus, Asbolis, Bahamas, Choranthus maria new sp., Cuba, Cymaenes, Dominican Republic, Ephyriades, Euphyes, Haiti, Nyctelius, Palmae, Panoquina, Perichares, Phocides, Polygonus, Proteides, Puerto Rico, Pyrgus, Pyrrhocalles, Sabal, Urbanus, Virgin Islands,Wallengrenia, West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1990. New Epermeniidae from Taiwan (Lepidoptera: Copromorphoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 59-62.

Abstract: Sinicaepermenia taiwanella, new genus and new species, is described from Kenting Park, southern Taiwan, as the first species of Epermeniidae known from Taiwan.

Key words: Epermenia, Epermeniinae, Japan, Ochromolopinae, Oriental, Phaulernis, Sinicaepermenia taiwanella n. gen. and n. sp., Thailand.

Emmel, T. C., and E. Garraway. 1990. Ecology and conservation biology of the Homerus Swallowtail in Jamaica (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 63-76.

Abstract: The Homerus Swallowtail, Papilio homerus Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), once inhabited seven of the thirteen parishes on the island of Jamaica. Today, it is found only in two isolated and diminishing strongholds: an eastern population in the parishes of St. Thomas and Portland, and the western population in the rugged Cockpit Country of Trelawny and St. Elizabeth. The ecology of the remaining populations is described, including habitat characteristics, seasonally, altitudinal range, host plants, behavior and other associated biological information. A summary of the stages of life history is illustrated by color photographs. The principal threats to the continued existence of the species are (1) destruction of the virgin wet rain forest habitat, and (2) commercial collecting in the remaining small populations. The establishment of patrolled nature reserves or a national park is recommended for the remaining habitat areas, as well as a possible butterfly farming program to lessen pressures on small wild populations.

Key words: Agehana, butterfly fanning, Hernandiaceae, immature stages, Lauraceae, life history, Ornithoptera, Papilio homerus, population ecology, West Indies.

Emmel, T. C., and J. F. Emmel. 1990. The life history and ecology of Hesperia nabokovi in the Dominican Republic (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 77-82.

Abstract: The life history and ecology of Hesperia nabokovi (Bell & Comstock), the only species of this genus outside the Holarctic Region, is described; egg, larval and pupal characters confirm its generic assignment. The complete life cycle takes 94 days.

Key words: Atalopedes, Calisto, Haiti, Gramineae, Hesperia comma, Hispaniola, immature stages, Nymphalidae, Oarisma stillmani, Satyrinae.

Heppner, J. B. 1990. Revision of Synechodes, with a new species from New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Brachodidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 83-85.

Abstract: The Australian-Papuan genus Synechodes is revised, including a redescription of its type-species Synechodes coniophora Turner from Queensland. A new species, Synechodes papuana Heppner, is described from New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Indonesia).

Key words: Australia, Indonesia, Irian Jaya, Miscera, Neotropical, New Guinea, Queensland, Sagalassa, Sesioidea, Synechodes papuana n. sp.

Castner, J. L. 1990. Book Review: Rainforests: A Guide to Research and Tourist Facilities at Selected Tropical Forest Sites in Central and South America, by T. C. Emmel. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 86.

Minno, M. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1990. Notes on the peculiar life history of Madoryx pseudothyreus, a cocoon-building hawkmoth in the Florida Keys (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 1(2): 87-90.

Abstract: The larvae of Madoryx pseudothyreus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), resident on Adams Key and Elliott Key, Florida, feed on the foliage of black mangrove trees, Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae), and pupate in silk cocoons spun on the branches or living leaves of the host. The last instar larva is normally cryptically colored brown and gray, but displays a pair of large eyespots on the thorax and bright colors on the prolegs when disturbed. The pupa bears a bifurcate cremaster that helps to anchor it in the cocoon.

Key words: Avicenniaceae, cocoons, cryptic coloration, hostplants, immature stages, Madoryx oiclus, mangrove, morphology, sphinx moth.

MAY 1991 Volume 2, Number 1

Krizek, G. O. 1991. Photographing Neotropical Metalmarks (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 1-10.

Abstract: Metalmarks (Riodinidae) are particularly beautiful subjects for the butterfly photographer. Presented herein are 43 photographs of riodinids in nature, and one picture of a riodinid-mimicking hesperiid, from Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru.

Key words: Adelpha, Amarynthis, Ancyluris, Arctiidae, Batesia, Brazil, Cabirus, Calydna, Caria, Chalodeta, Chamaelimnas, Charis, Chorinea, Costa Rica, Crocozona, Danainae, Dioptidae, Dynamine,Ecuador, Emesis,Eurybia,Euselasia, Geometridae, Heliconiinae, Hesperiidae, Lasaia, Lemonias, Rhetus, Riodina, Rondônia, Sarota, Semomesia, Siseme, Siproeta, Stalachtis.

Heppner, J. B. 1991. Brachyptery and aptery in Lepidoptera. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 11-40.

Abstract: The conditions of wing reduction (brachyptery) and loss of wings (aptery), and modifications thereof, are reviewed across all known families of Lepidoptera where this has been observed in either males or females, or both sexes. Brachyptery or aptery is known in 35 families of Lepidoptera, including families or species where a kind of brachyptery is only evident as extreme wing reduction of the hind wings. Examples from most families known to have brachyptery of some form are illustrated among 147 figures.

Key words: Alucitidae, Anthelidae, Arctiidae, Blastobasidae, Brachodidae, Carposinidae, Cosmopterigidae, Cossidae, Ctenuchinae, Elachistidae, Epiplemidae, Eriocottidae, Gelechiidae, genetics, Geometridae, Glyphipterigidae, Gracillariidae, Hepialidae, Heterogynidae, Himantopteridae, Lasiocampidae, Lecithoceridae, Limacodidae, Lycaenidae, Lymantriidae, Lyonetiidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Oecophoridae, Oxychirotidae, Papilionidae, Psychidae, Pterophoridae, Pyralidae, Scythrididae, Sesiidae, Somabrachyidae, Sphingidae, Syntominae, Thyretidae, Thyrididae, Tineidae, Tortricidae, Yponomeutidae, Zygaenidae.

Davis, D. R. 1991. First Old World record of the moth family Arrhenophanidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 41-42.

Abstract: The presence of a new genus and two new species of the tineoid family Arrhenophanidae is reported from the central mountains of Taiwan. This constitutes the first record of the family for the Old World. A summary of the diagnostic features of the family is also provided.

Key words: biogeography, Dysoptus, larva, Micrerethista, morphology, Neotropical, Oriental, pupa, systematics, Harmaclona, Psychidae, Taiwan, Tineidae.

Krizek, G. O. 1991. Sphingids in Photography. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 43-51.

Abstract: Photographs (53) from life of mostly Neotropical and tropical Sphingidae, both flying and/or perching, are presented. Discussed and illustrated are 44 species. The larva of one species is illustrated.

Key words: Adhemarius, Africa, Agrius, Austria, Basiothia, Brazil, Callionima, Cocytius, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Enyo, Erinnyis, Ethiopian, Eumorpha, Europe, Hemeroplanes, Hippotion, Hyles, Isognathus, Kenya, Macroglossum, Madoryx, Manduca, Martinique, Mexico, Morocco, Neotropical, Nyceryx, Oryba, Pachylia, Pachylioides, Palearctic, Perigonia, Peru, Protambulyx, Pseudosphinx, Sphingidae, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Xylophones.

Minno, M. C., and A. K. Minno. 1991. A Florida Leopard Moth with missing spots (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 52.

Dickel, T. S. 1991. New records of Noctuid moths from Florida (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 53-58.

Abstract: New Florida records are reported for 30 species of Neotropical Noctuidae, with most of the new records also new for the continental United States fauna.

Key words: Achaea, Aglaonice, Anacardiaceae, Anomis, Bleptina, Callopistria, Condica, distribution, Elaphria, Elousa, Epidromia, Eulepidotis, Euscirrhopterus, Gonodonta, hostplants, Hypena, Leucania, Litoprosopus, Macristis, Metalectra, Mimophisma, Mocis, Myrtaceae, Neotuerta, Paectes, Pseudaletia, Ptichodis, Spodoptera, West Indies.

Chiba, H., Nakanishi, A., Fukuda, H., and O. Yata. 1991. A new species of Coladenia from Luzon, Philippines, with description of immatures (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1):59-64.

Abstract: Coladenia minor Chiba, new species, is described from Luzon, Philippines. Its final instar larva and pupa are also described.

Key words: Coladenia minor n. sp., Connaraceae, Connarus semidecandrus, Daimio, immature stages, larva, pupa.

Freeman, H. A. 1991. A new species of Dalla from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 59-64.

Abstract: Dalla steinhauseri, new species, is described from three males collected by John Kemner in Oaxaca, Mexico, during May 1990, the elevation varying from 1860-2700m. The closest related species to D. steinhauseri is D. bubobon (Dyar, 1921), known from two males: the holotype from Guerreo, Mexico (Muller Collection, USNM), and a male labelled southern Mexico, Townsend (Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). This species differs from D. steinhauseri in color pattern, maculation, size and morphology of the male genitalia.

Key words: Amblyscirtes, Bolla, Central America, Cypselus, Dalla steinhauseri n. sp., Enosis, Mylon, Niconiades, Papias, Pyrrhopyge, Remella, South America.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review: Directory of Lepidoptera Conservation Projects, by T. R. New (for IUCN/SSC Lepidoptera Specialist Group). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 68.

Heppner, J. B. 1991. A new Florida Ethmia moth (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 69-72.

Abstract: Ethmia kutisi, new species, is described from north Florida. The new species is closely related to the more widespread species, Ethmia longimaculella (Chambers). The Florida Ethmia fauna now totals 9 species.

Key words: Boraginaceae, distribution, Ethmia kutisi n. sp., Ethmiinae, West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1991. Tortyra metalmark moths of Florida (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 73-78.

Abstract: The two known Florida and North American species of the Neotropical genus Tortyra are reviewed, including Tortyra slossonia (Femald) and Tortyra iocyaneus, new species. Both species occur only in southern Florida and the Bahamas.

Key words: Bahamas, biology, Cuba, hostplants, Moraceae, Neotropical, Saptha, Tortyra iocyaneus n. sp., West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1991. Hemerophila metalmark moths of Florida (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(1): 79-84.

Abstract: The two known Florida and North American species of the Neotropical genus Hemerophila are reviewed. New records of Hemerophila dyari Busck are reported for the first time in over 90 years since the original description.

Key words: Bahamas, Cuba, Moraceae, Neotropical, Rhobonda, Tortyra, West Indies, Zodia.

NOVEMBER 1991 Volume 2, Number 2

Krizek, G. O. 1991. Neotropical Nymphalidae in Photography, Part 1. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 85-102.

Abstract: Presented here are 90 photographs from life of 78 species of Neotropical Nymphalidae, from Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela, mostly photographed on Emmel-Holbrook butterfly expeditions within the past 6-7 years.

Key words: Adelpha, Anartia, Archeoprepona, Anthanassa, Batesia, Brazil, Callicore, Castilia, Cotonephele, Chlosyne, Colobura, Consul, Costa Rica, Diaethria, Dione, Doxocopa, Dynamine, Dryaditla, Diyas, Ecuador, Ectima, Eresia, Eueides, Hamadryas, Heliconiinae, Heliconius, Hypanartia, Marpesia, Mazia, Memphis, Mexico, Nessaea, Onilia, Panacea, Perisama, Peru, Philaethria, Podotricha, Pyrrhogyra, Siproeta, Smyrna, Telenassa, Temenis, Tigridia, Venezuela, Victorina, Zaretis.

Watts, J. R., and D. H. Habeck. 1991. Immature stages of Anthanassa texana seminole (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 103-106.

Abstract: The immature stages of Anthanassa texana seminole (Skinner) in Florida are described. Eggs and larvae were collected on Justicia ovata (Walt.) Linau. There are five larval instars and development at 28°C from egg hatching to adult emergence averaged 22 days. Small but consistent differences between larvae of A. t. texana and A. t. seminole occur in coloration, length and number of secondary setae on the head and stemmatal arrangement.

Key words: Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, biology, life history, Compositae, Eresia, Florida, Hymenoptera, larva, life history, Nearctic, parasites, Phyciodes, Scrophulariaceae, Texas, Trichogramma, Trichogrammatidae, USA.

Meerman, J. C. 1991. Hyles euphorbiae himyarensis from Yemen (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 107-109.

Abstract: The taxon Hyles euphorbiae himyarensis Meerman, and its place within the Hyles euphorbiae-complex (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), is discussed. Larval characters are important to recognize relationships between related taxa.

Key words: Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Canary Is., Cape Verde Is., Ethiopian, Euphorbiaceae, immature stages, larva, larval morphology, Palearctic, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Switzerland, Tunisia.Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review: Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona, by R. A. Bailowitz and J. P. Brock. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 110.

Owen, D. F. 1991. Pseudaletis leonis: a rare mimetic butterfly in a West African rain forest (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 111-113.

Abstract: Pseudaletis leonis is a rare, black and white lycaenid butterfly known only from a few specimens collected in West African rain forests. At one site in Sierra Leone, which had previously been well-investigated, the species suddenly and unexpectedly became quite common. The butterfly is probably a mimic of a black and white day-flying moth, Nyctemera apicalis (Arctiidae), or of the much larger, black and white monarch butterfly, Amauris niavius (Danaidae). However, its rarity defies detailed investigation and its placement in the mimetic assemblage of forest butterflies in the area must be regarded as tentative.

Key words: Acraea, Acraeinae, Africa, Aletis, Amauris, Arctiidae, Bematistes, Cameroon, Cooksonia, Danaidae, Danaus, defensive behavior, Ethiopian, Geometridae, Hypsidae, Liberia, Liptena, Liptenaria, Mimacraea, mimicry, Noctuoidea, Nyctemera, Pitthea, Pseudaletis, rain forest, rarity, Sierra Leone, Telipna.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review: Atlas de Las Mariposas Diurnas de Cuba (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera), by Pastor Alayo D. and L. R. Hernandez. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 114.

Sala, G., and M. Bollino. 1991. Some gynandromorphs of Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 115-116.

Abstract: Gynandromorphs of 5 Papilionidae are illustrated, from Philippines, Indonesia, Central African Republic, and the USA.

Key words: Central African Republic, Ceram, Indonesia, Luzon, Palawan, Papilio, Philippines, USA, Wisconsin.

Dickel, T. S. 1991. Cactoblastis cactorum in Florida (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 117-118.

Abstract: New Florida records are noted for the cactus-feeding phycitine, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), described originally from Argentina and now established in the United States mainland.

Key words: Argentina, Bahamas, Cactaceae, Cuba, Leeward Is., Neotropical, Puerto Rico, West Indies, Zophodia.

Heppner, J. B. 1991. A new Florida Chrysendeton moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Nymphulinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 119-121.

Abstract: Chrysendeton nigrescens n. sp. is described from northern Florida.

Key words: aquatic moths, bog habitat, Chrysendeton nigrescens n. sp., Nearctic, Neotropical, Panama, West Indies.

Parrott, R. E. 1991. New Borneo (Kalimantan) subspecies of Troides and Trogonoptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 122-136.

Abstract: Three new subspecies of birdwings are described from Borneo, Kalimantan, Indonesia: Troides amphrysus andrewei n. subsp., Troides helena orientis n. subsp., and Trogonoptera brookiana haugumei n. subsp.

Key words: birdwings, Indonesia, Malaysia, Ornithoptera, Sabah, Sarawak, Sumatra, Trogonoptera brookiana haugumei n. subsp., Troides amphrysus andrewei n. subsp., Troides helena orientis n. subsp.

Urich, F. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1991. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 3. Morpho peleides insularis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 137-139.

Abstract: The life history of Morpho peleides insularis (Fruhstorfer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae) is described from material reared on Paragonia pyramidata (L. C. Rich) in the family Bignoniaceae. Occasional hosts in Trinidad are also Erythrina glauca and E. micropteryx (Fabaceae). The complete life cycle takes 74 days at ambient temperatures in eastern coastal Trinidad (7 days in the egg stage, 53 days in four or five larval instars, and 14 days as a pupa).

Key words: Antirrhea, Bignoniaceae, biology, Caerois, Costa Rica, Fabaceae, hostplants, immature stages, larva, Leguminosae, life history, Morpho, Nymphalidae, Pierella, pupa, Satyridae, Tobago, Trinidad.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review: Sarapiqui Chronicle: A Naturalist in Costa Rica, by Allen M. Young. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 140.

Urich, F. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1991. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 4. Dynastor macrosiris (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 141-144.

Abstract: The life history of Dynastor macrosiris Westwood (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) is described from material reared on Aechmea nudicaulis Linnaeus in the family Bromeliaceae. The huge egg is 3.50 mm in diameter, ribbed vertically, and white when first deposited, later turning to pink with larval development. There are five larval instars. All are characterized by fleshy spines on the dorsal centrum, short on head and caudal segments and longest in the center. The bodies are striped lengthwise in alternating whitish green and darker green lines, with several dorsal maroon blotches. A bifid tail is present. The head has four knobby spines on each side. The pupae is shaded beige and chocolate brown, and strikingly resembles a lizard or snake head. The complete life cycle of this rare and very unusual bassoline takes 70 days (for a male) at ambient temperatures in Trinidad (12 days in the egg stage, 42 days in five larval instars, and 16 days as a pupa).

Key words: biology, Bromeliaceae, Dynastor, hostplants, immature stages, larva, life history, Panama, pupa.

Urich, F. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1991. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 5. Dynastor darius darius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 145-149.

Abstract: The life history of Dynastor darius darius (Stichel) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) is described from material reared on Aechmea nudicaulis Linnaeus and other large bromeliad species in the family Bromeliaceae. The large egg is 2.0mm in diameter, finely ribbed vertically, greenish when first laid, turning pinkish on the second day. There are five larval instars. The mature larva is dark green with alternating lighter-green markings running lengthwise, and three beige-colored dorsal patches. The body is covered with short fine hairs. The bifid tails are short. There are four knobbed horns on each side of the head. The pupa is shaped like a snake head and is beige, chocolate brown, and misty gray in basic ground colors. The snake-head appearance is enhanced by the pupational orientation of the pupa, with ventral side uppermost and exposed to view as it hangs from the leaf. The complete life cycle of this rare brassolinae takes 62 days at ambient temperatures in Trinidad (9 days in the egg stage, 40 days in five larval instars, and 13 days as a pupa).

Key words: Argentina, biology, Brazil, Bromeliaceae, Costa Rica, Dynastor, hostplants, immature stages, larva, life history, Mexico, Panama, pupa.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review : Lepidopterofauna de Guerrero I: Distribucion y Fenologia de los Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Atoyac, by Isabel Vargas Hernandez, Jorge E. Llorente Bousquets, and Moises Armando Luis Martinez. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 150.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. Book Review : Lepidopterofauna de Oaxaca I: Distribucion y Fenologia de los Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Juarez, by Moises Armando Luis Martinez, Isabel Vargas Hernandez, and Jorge E. Llorente Bousquets. Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2):150.

Emmel, T. C. 1991. A note on the life history of Dynastor napoleon in southern Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 2(2): 151-153.

Abstract: The mature larva of Dynastor napoleon Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) is described from material reared in southern Brazil on a large bromeliad species in the family Bromeliaceae. The larva is dull green, with lighter-green spined bumps across the entire surface and a series of beige/dark brown mid-dorsal spots, one at each intersegmental junction. The bifed tails are long. On each side the highly patterned head has four knobbed, dark brown horns.

Key words: biology, Brassolis, Bromeliaceae, Dynastor, Hesperiidae, hostplants, immature stages, larva, life history, Megathymidae, Neotropical.

MAY 1992 Volume 3, Number 1

Larsen, T. B. 1992. Migration of Catopsilia florella in Botswana (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 2-11.

Abstract: During March and April of 1991 a large migration of Catopsilia florella (Fabricius), comprising more than 1.5 billion individuals, crossed the whole of Botswana (about 1000km) with a direction just north of east-northeast. Numerically, this is one of the largest butterfly migrations ever documented. No major outbreak areas were identified and the evidence is consistent with breeding over a large part of the inner Kalahari and probably Namibia. The behaviour of the migrants was typical, though C. florella seems more ready to make small pauses at flowers or damp patches than is usual in migrants. The migrants unerringly resumed the migration even after several days of inactivity due to bad weather. The migrants were morphologically different from the parents and from non-migrant populations in the area. Migrant males were not sexually active while migrant females mated non-migrant males in some numbers, though these were always significantly outnumbered by migrants. The flight direction was maintained with great precision irrespective of wind conditions. Virtually all migrants left Botswana. The direction was the same throughout Botswana over nearly two months, precluding the possibility of spoke-like movement out of an out-break centre. A few cases of movement towards the northwest, presumably with an origin in the Orange Free State, were also noted. At times, half a dozen other species participated in the migration, but always at very low densities. Bushmen in the Kalahari use butterfly migrations as indicators of the imminent arrival of the vast herds of migratory ungulates from the same direction.

Key words: Acraea, Africa, Belenois, Byblia, Colotis, Danaus, Ethiopia, Ethiopian, Eurema, Hypolimnas, India, Junonia, Kenya, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, migration, Nymphalidae, South Africa, Vanessa, Zimbabwe.

Larsen, T. B. 1992. Photo Essay: Mimicry in Action. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 12.

Heppner, J. B. 1992. Sulawesi (Minahasa) Lepidoptera and Project Wallace, 1985. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 13-22.

Abstract: A summary of a trip to Sulawesi is given, along with results of the Lepidoptera species encountered during Oct 1985, as part of the Project Wallace Royal Entomological Society Expedition to northern Sulawesi during 1985. Features of the expedition are noted, as well as a discussion of some of the Lepidoptera fauna in the area. Minahasa surveying resulted in finding 2,265 moth species and over 200 butterfly species, many of which are endemic to Sulawesi.

Key words: Australia, beetles, biogeography, Borneo, Choreutidae, Celebes, Coleoptera, Diptera, diversity, Dumoga-Bone National Park, Geometridae, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Indonesia, Java, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae, Moluccas, Noctuidae, Philippines, Pyralidae.

Minno, M. C. 1992. New hostplant record for Aellopos tantalus from the Florida Keys (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 23.

Heppner, J. B. 1992. Melanic Marumba hawkmoth from Taiwan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 24.

Austin, G. T. 1992. New and additional records of Costa Rican butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 25-33.

Abstract: Seven butterfly species, Lieinix poasina, Eurema agave, Adelpha massilia, Junonia genoveva, Castilia griseobasalis, Morpho catenarius and Caligo oedipus, are reported as new to the Costa Rican fauna. Three additional species were reported for the country since the publication of DeVries (1987). Numerous other records are presented which extend the known distribution and flight season in Costa Rica.

Key words: Actinote, Adelpha, Anteos, Anthanassa, Ascia, Brassolis, butterflies, Caligo, Callidulidae, Castilia, Catoblepia, Chlosyne, Cissia, Costa Rica, Cyllopsis, distribution, Dynamine, Ectima, Epiphile, Eresia, Eunica, Euptychia, Eurema, Eurytides, Haematera, Heliconius, Junonia, Lieinix, Morpho, Napeogenes, Nymphalidae, Panacea, Papilionidae, Parides, Pereute, Pieridae, Pteronymia, Pyrrhogyra, Siproeta, Taygetis.

Skillman Jr., F. W., and J. B. Heppner. 1992. Gynandromorph Speyeria diana from Georgia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 34.

Emmel, T. C., Daniels, J. C., Brock, J. P., Garraway, E., Bailey, A., and T. Turner. 1992. Tmolus azia, a new resident hairstreak becoming more widespread in Jamaica (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 35-56.

Ballmer, G. R., and G. F. Pratt. 1992. Loranthomitoura, a new genus of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 37-46.

Abstract: Loranthomitoura, new genus, is described for five North American hairstreak butterflies which utilize Arceuthobium as a larval host. These species were previously placed in the genus Mitoura with other taxa which utilize hosts in the Cupressaceae. Separation of Loranthomitoura from Mitoura is based primarily on characteristics of the immature stages, especially first instar chaetotaxy. Larval and adult features indicate that Loranthomitoura may have greater affinity with Incisalia.

Key words: Arawacus, Atlides, California, Callophryina, Callophrys, Chlorostrymon, Cupressaceae, Cyanophrys, Durango, Erora, Eumaeus, Fabaceae, Fixsenia, Habrodais, Harkenclenus, Hemiargus, Hypaurotis, immature stages, Incisalia, larvae, Leguminosae, Loranthomitoura n. gen., Mexico, Ministrymon, Mitoura, Nearctic, Neotropical, New Mexico, North America, Sandia, Satyrium, Sonora, Strymon, Theclini, Viscaceae, Xamia.

Minno, M. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1992. Larval protective coloration in swallowtails from the Florida Keys (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 47-49.

Abstract: Observations of the occurrence of dark and light color patterns in early instar larvae of Papilio species suggest that they may be selected for disruptive coloration, mimicry of bird droppings, or mimicry of lizard droppings, depending upon size of the larval stage and relative occurrence of appropriate models in the species' habitat.

Key words: immature stages, larval behavior, Papilio.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: Swallowtail Butterflies: An Action Plan for Their Conservation, compiled by T. R. New and N. M. Collins (for IUCN/SSC Lepidoptera Specialists Group). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 50.

Minno, M. C., and T. C. Emmel. 1992. Caudal false face patterns on the larvae of Florida swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 51-52.

Abstract: The mature larvae of four Florida swallowtail species that feed and rest in the open on their host plants possess distinctive false-face patterns on the caudal end; these are exposed to approaching predators coming up stems or leaf petioles. Larvae of three Florida swallowtail species with frightening patterns and eyespots on the cephalic end, on the other hand, make rolled leaf shelters to hide in between feeding bouts, and the enlarged false faces typically "stare" out of the shelters at predators approaching from the leaf petioles or stems.

Key words: defensive behavior, immature stages, Papilio, protective coloration.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: The Butterflies of Kenya and Their Natural History, by Torben B. Larsen. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 53-54.

Dickel, T. S. 1992. New records of microlepidoptera from Florida (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae, Yponomeutidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 55-56.

Abstract: New Florida and continental United States records are reported for three microlepidoptera: Ethmia submissa Busck and Ethmia subsimilis Walsingham, in Oecophoridae (Ethmiinae), and Yponomeuta calcarata Meyrick, in Yponomeutidae.

Key words: Bermuda, Cuba, Ethmia, Jamaica, West Indies, Yponomeuta.

Heppner, J. B. 1992. Biology and immature stages of the bromeliad pod borer, Epimorius testaceellus, in Florida (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Galleriinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(1): 57-62.

Abstract: The biology and immature stages of Epimorius testaceellus Ragonot are described, as reared in Florida from flower pods of the epiphytic bromeliad, Tillandsia fasciculata Sw. (Bromeliaceae).

Key words: Bleptina, Bromeliaceae, Cosmopterigidae, Eurytomidae, hostplant, Hymenoptera, Jamaica, larva, life history, Noctuidae, Opogona, pupa, Pyralis, Pyroderces, South America, Tineidae, Tortricidae, West Indies, Xylesthia.

NOVEMBER 1992 Volume 3, Number 2

Brower, L. P., Ivie, M. A., Fink, L. S., Watts, J. R., and R. A. Moranzi. 1992. Life history of Anetia briarea and its bearing on the evolutionary relationships of the Danainae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 64-73.

Abstract: Wild captured Anetia briarea females oviposited on, and their larvae ate, Cynanchum angustifolium, a milkweed vine (Asclepiadaceae). Contrary to the early literature, 2nd through 5th instar larvae bear a pair of well developed dorsal tubercles on their mesothorax. This and several other larval and chrysalid characters question Ackery and Vane-Wright's (1984) placement of the genus Anetia in the largely Old World tribe Euploeini, as well as its relationship to the genus Lycorea. Several larval and chrysalid characters seem closer to those of the tribe Danaini. Forbes (1939) may well have been correct in placing Anetia at the base of the subfamily Danainae. The new findings have major evolutionary and taxonomic implications for the milkweed butterflies.

Key words: Amauris, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, behavior, biogeography, Central America, chemical defense, Danaina, Danaini, Danaus, Dominican Republic, Euploea, Euploeina, Euploeini, evolution, Greater Antilles, Hispaniola, hostplants, Idea, Ideopsis, immature stages, Ithomiinae, Itunina, larval morphology, Lycorea, Lycoreini, Mexico, milkweed butterflies, Neotropical, Parantica, parasites, Pinaceae, Protoploea, pupa, Taiwan, taxonomic characters, Theophrastaceae, Tirumala, West Indies.

Larsen, T. B. 1992. Photo Essay: Spider Predation of Butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 74.

Krizek, G. O. 1992. Neotropical Nymphalidae in Photography, Part 2. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 75-94.

Abstract: Presented here are 100 photographs from life of 83 species of Neotropical Nymphalidae, from Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela, mostly photographed on Emmel-Holbrook butterfly expeditions within the past 8 years.

Key words: Actinote, Agrias, Anetia, Antirrhea, Archaeoprepona, Bia, Brazil, Callicore, Caligo, Castilia, Catoblepia, Ceratinia, Cithaerias, Costa Rica, Dynamine, Ecuador, Eunica, Ettptychia, Godyris, Haetera, Hamadryas, Heliconius, Hypna, Ithomia, Junonia, Lycorea, Mechanitis, Memphis, Methona, Mexico, Morpho, Napeocles, Nessaea, Nica, Oleria, Opsiphanes, Oxeoschistus, Paulogramma, Penrosada, Peria, Peru, Pierella, Prepona, Pteronymia, Scada, Siproeta, Taygetis, Yemenis, Tithorea, Venezuela, Zaretis.

Pyrcz, T. W. 1992. Rain forests of São Tomé and Príncipe: butterflies and conservation. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 95-100.

Abstract: The rain forest butterfly fauna of the African islands of São Tomé and Príncipe are discussed.

Key words: Acraea, Aganainae, African, Asota, Dixeia, Ethiopian, Hypolimnas, Lycaenidae, Mylothris, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Zizeeria.

Larsen, T. B. 1992. A chameleon as predator of butterflies and its avoidance of known aposematic species. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 101-104.

Abstract: The African chameleon, Chameleo dilepis Leach, was observed attacking various butterflies in Botswana. Experiments to determine the unpalatability of various butterfly species are reported on.

Key words: Acraea, African, Axiocerses, Azanus, Belenois, Botswana, Byblia, Catopsilia, Coleoptera, Danainae, Danaus, Ethiopian, Hypolimnas, Junonia, Meloidae, Nymphalidae, Orthoptera, Papilio, Papilionidae, Pieridae, predation, Pyrgomorphidae, Reptilia, Satyrinae, Tenebrionidae, Zygaena, Zygaenidae.

Peigler, R. S. 1992. A new species of Syntherata from the Trobriand Islands (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 105-108.

Abstract: A new species of Syntherata is described and figured. It is a large species, known only from the tiny Trobriand Islands off the eastern end of New Guinea. Information on ecology, hostplants, taxonomy, and zoogeography of the genus is presented.

Key words: Actias, Anacardiaceae, Antheraea, Arhopala, Attacus, Aurivillius, Australia, biogeography, camouflage, Casuarinaceae, Ceram, Combretaceae, Copaxa, Danainae, Eacles, Euphorbiaceae, Euploea, Indonesia, island biogeography, hostplants, Lemaireia, Loepa, Lycaenidae, Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, New Britain, New Guinea, Nymphalidae, Oleaceae, Oriental, Papuan, Podocarpaceae, Proteaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Saturnia, Southeast Asia, Syntherata naessigi n. sp., Tagoropsis.

Llorente-Bousquets, J., Luis-Martinez, A., and L. Gonzalez-Cota. 1992. Diferenciacion de prepona Deiphile en Mesoamerica y descripcion de dos subespecies nuevas (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 109-114.

Resumen: Se analiza la distribucion de Prepona deiphile en Mesoamerica y se describen e ilustran dos subespecies nuevas. Se discute la variacion geografica de los caracteres que las diagnostican y se da una clave para su identificacion. Se mencionan aspectos de su conducta y habitat. El patron de distribucion de P. deiphile en Mesoamerica se asocia con otras especies que lo presentan, como Pereute charops, Dismorphia amphiona y D. eunoe. Todos ellos son elementos estenoecos limitados al bosque templado humedo de montana de Mesoamerica, que presentan diversas subspecies ocupando "islas" de dichos bosques.

Abstract: The distribution of Prepona deiphile in Middle America is analyzed and two new subspecies are described and illustrated: Prepona deiphile lambertoana new subsp. and Prepona deiphile salvadora new subsp. We discuss the geographic variation in diagnostic characters and give a key for identification, and some aspects of habitat and behavior are noted. The distribution pattern of Prepona deiphile in Middle America is similar to that presented by other stenoecious species restricted to humid temperate mountain forests in Middle America, like Pereute charops, Dismorphia amphiona, and D. eunoe; these exhibit various geographic races occupying "habitat islands" in those forests.

Key words: biogeography, Charaxinae, Consul, Costa Rica, Cyllopsis, Diaethria, Dismorphia, distribution, El Salvador, endemism, Eucheira, Eunica, Hesperocharis, Iphimedeia, Lieinix, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Nicaragua, Nymphalidae, Panama, Papilionoidea, Paramacera, Prepona deiphile lambertoana n. subsp., Prepona deiphile salvadora n. subsp., vicariance.

Luis-Martinez, A., Llorente-Bousquets, J., and I. Vargas-Fernandez. 1992. Redescubrimiento de Paramacera copiosa en La Sierra Madre del Sur, Guerrero, México (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 115-117.

Abstract: The female of Paramacera copiosa is described, and the sexual variation and distribution are commented.

Key words: Euptychiini, Neotropical, Oaxaca, Paramacera, Pinaceae, Satyrinae.

Krizek, G. O. 1992. Unusual interaction between a butterfly and a beetle: "sexual paraphilia" in insects? Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 118.

Bollino, M., and G. Sala. 1992. A new subspecies of Atrophaneura coon from Bawean Island (Indonesia) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 119-122.

Abstract: The authors describe and figure a new subspecies, Atrophaneura coon sangkapurae new subsp., from Bawean Island (Indonesia).

Key words: Atrophaneura coon sangkapurae new subsp., Bawean, distribution, Graphium, Java, Indonesia, mimicry, Oriental, Papilio, Troides.

Lemaire, C., Smith, M. J., and K. L. Wolfe. 1992. A new Automeris from Arizona, including its life history and notes on the Automeris colenon complex (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 123-129.

Abstract: Automeris patagoniensis new sp. is described from the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona (elev. 1350-1550m), USA. The new species belongs to the Automeris io (Fabricius) group, and is most closely allied with Automeris colenon Dyar (= thyreon Dyar, new syn.), a widely distributed grass-feeding Mexican species. Male and female genitalia are figured, species variation, distribution and natural history are compared and the respective larval and imaginal characters of A. patagoniensis, A. colenon, and A. io draudtiana are discussed and illustrated.

Key words: Anacardiaceae, Automeris patagoniensis new sp., biology, Costa Rica, distribution, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, genitalia, Gramineae, Hemileuca, immature stages, larvae, Leguminosae, Mexico, natural history, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Sonora, systematics, variation.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: Butterflies of Baja California: Faunal Survey, Natural History, Conservation Biology, by John W. Brown, Herman G. Real, and David K. Faulkner. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 130.

Yoshiyasu, Y., and Y. Arita. 1992. A new species of Parthenodes from the Ryukyus, Japan (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Nymphulinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 131-133.

Abstract: A new nymphuline species, Parthenodes okinawanus new sp., is described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The comparison of the new species with Parthenodes fuscalis Yoshiyasu is also given.

Key words: Okinawa, Oriental, Parthenodes okinawanus new sp., taxonomy.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: The Lepidoptera of Bermuda: Their Foodplants, Biogeography, and Means of Dispersal, by D. C. Ferguson, D. J. Hilburn, and B. Wright. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 134.

Eichlin, T. D. 1992. Clearwing moths of Baja California, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 135-150.

Abstract: The 15 known species of Sesiidae of Baja California, Mexico are discussed. Five species are unique to the Baja Peninsula, four of which are described as new species: Melittia faulkneri n. sp., M. gilberti n. sp., Carmenta andrewsi n. sp., and C. erici n. sp. Adults are described, figured and salient features illustrated.

Key words: Betulaceae, biology, Carmenta, Carmenta andrewsi n. sp., Carmenta erici n. sp., Compositae, Cucurbitaceae, distribution, Fagaceae, hostplants, Hymenoclea, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Melittia, Melittia faulkneri n. sp., Melittia gilberti n. sp., Nearctic, Neotropical, Paranthrene, Paranthreninae, Penstemonia, pheromones, Platanaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Sesiinae, Solanaceae, Sophona, Synanthedon, Tinthiinae, Western Hemisphere, Zenodoxus, USA.

Casagrande, M. M. 1992. New subspecies of Selenophanes from Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 151-152.

Abstract: Selenophanes cassiope guarany new subsp., is described from Parana and São Paulo, Brazil and east Paraguay.

Key words: Brassolinae, Neotropical, Paraguay, Selenophanes cassiope guarany new subsp., South America.

Lemaire, C., and A. R. Amarillo-S. 1992. Une nouvelle espèce du genre Automeris de Colombie Orientale (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 153-154.

Abstract: Automeris iguaquensis, new sp., is described from eastern Colombia, Boyaca, Santuario Nacional de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque, 2400m where it was first collected in 1989 by the junior author. It belongs to a small group of Automeris which is endemic to the cloud forest on eastern and western slopes of the Andes, at elevations from 2000-3000m. Automeris iguaquensis differs from its closest relatives in several characters of the habitus and in the male genitalia.

Key words: Automeris iguaquensis new sp., Colombia, cloud forest, Ecuador, Hemileucinae, Neotropical.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: The Development and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns, by H. Frederik Nijhout. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 155-156.

Emmel, T. C. 1992. Book Review: Butterflies of the Bulolo-Wau Valley, by Michael Parsons. Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 157.

Chaturvedi, N., and M. Haribal. 1992. New larval food plants for the Common Tiger Butterfly in India (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 158.

June 1992 Volume 3, Supplement 1

Parsons, M. J. 1992. The butterfly farming and trading industry in the Indo-Australian region and its role in tropical forest conservation. Tropical Lepidoptera 3 (Suppl. 1): 1-31.

Abstract: The events in the establishment of the concepts and principles of butterfly farming in the Indo-Australian Region are chronicled. The question is posed as to whether harnessing the wealth provided by the tropical butterfly trade in this way can be truely effective in tropical forest protection. Topics such as ill-conceived legislation affecting the international butterfly trade, and the controversy concerning overcollecting, are discussed. It is shown that by using certain now well-tested methods, and if properly implemented under government supervision, the system can indeed be very beneficial in conservation of tropical forests. Coupled with appropriate legislative restrictions to cut out middle-men, it can be very effective in utilising this highly sustainable resource and directing the valuable funds it provides back into habitat protection. It is argued that the butterfly farming system can provide rural economies with much needed income which reduces the financial need for peoples living in or adjacent to tropical forests to non-sustainably exploit them. Thus it directly promotes forest conservation, as well as indirectly through its associated educational attributes. Based on the author's extensive field experience, and a number of problems that have been experienced in project startup in various countries in the past, particularly through lack of funding, it is concluded that regional butterfly farming projects could be far more effectively achieved if established through a dedicated umbrella organisation. This would be best set up and coordinated within an already existing international conservation body.

Key words: Argema, Aristolochiaceae, Atrophaneura, Australia, Bhutanitis, birdwings, China, collecting controversy, Coscinocera, economics, government policies, Graphium, Hong Kong, Idea, India, Indonesia, Insect Farming and Trading Agency, Japan, Korea, Lasiocampidae, legislation, Malaysia, Nymphalidae, Ornithoptera, Papilio, Papilionidae, Papua New Guinea, Parnassius, Saturniidae, Solomons, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Trogonoptera, Troides, Vietnam, World Wide Fund for Nature.

Parsons, M. J. 1992. The world's largest butterfly endangered: the ecology, status and conservation of Ornithoptera alexandrae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3 (Suppl. 1): 33-60.

Abstract: The ecology and conservation of the world's largest butterfly, endangered Ornithoptera alexandrae Rothschild (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), known only from the Popondetta and Afore regions of Papua New Guinea's Northern Province, are outlined and discussed. The continuing loss of habitat to the oil palm and timber industries in the Popondetta area is detailed, and the neglect of protection of the species over the past decade is stressed. The results of a recent two month (April-June 1991) field survey to update knowledge of the present-day distributional status of the species are outlined. An action plan is given which is aimed at greatly improving the survival prospects of the species. Among other factors, it emphasizes the need to continue surveys to provide an in-depth update of the present status of the species, to set aside reserves of remaining natural habitat, to recreate new areas of habitat, to carry out further ecological research and education, and to work towards the economic utilisation of the species for its own benefit.

Key words: Afore, Aristolochiaceae, Atrophaneura, birdwings, Encyrtidae, endangered, habitat, Heliconius, larva, logging, Nymphalidae, oil palm, Papua New Guinea, Popondetta, predators, pupa, Queen Alexandra's Birdwing, Troides.

MAY 1993 Volume 4, Number 1

Lödl, M. 1993. The Malaysian hawkmoths: an annotated and illustrated checklist (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 3-6.

Abstract: This preliminary list is based on literature records, on the collection of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna, and on personal investigations of the author: it lists 116 species, with 12 being doubtful for the Malay Peninsula.

Key words: Acherontia, Acosmeryx, Agrius, Ambulyx, Ampelophaga, Amplypterus, Angonyx, behavior, Borneo, Callambulyx, Cephonodes, Cechenena, Clanis, Cypa, Daphnis, Daphnusa, Degmaptera, Dolbina, Elibia, Enpinanga, Eurypteryx, Gehlenia, Giganteopalpus, Gnathothlibus, Gurelca, Hippotion, Java, Leucophlebia, Macroglossum, Malay Peninsula, Marumba, Megacorma, Meganoton, Nephele, Oriental, Panacra, Polyptychus, Psilogramma, Rhagastis, Rhyncholaba, Sabah, Sataspes, Smerinthulus, Southeast Asia, Sphingonaepiopsis, Sumatra, Theretra.

Berio, E. 1993. Un genre nouveau et trois noctuelles nouvelles du Kenya et de Tanzanie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 7-12.

Resume : Description d'un genre nouveau Debrosania gen. n., et de trois nouvelles espèces de Noctuidae du Kenya et de Tanzanie prises à la lumière: Micraxylia brosi sp. n. du Kenya, Cardepia emmanueli sp. n. du Kenya, et Debrosania puechredoni sp. n. de Tanzanie. Elles se trouvaient parmi 38 exemplaires de Noctuelles déterminés par 1'auteur, récoltés par M. Emmanuel Bros de Puechredon, alias de Bros, en Janvier 1977 pendant une mini-expédition au Kenya et en Tanzanie. Commentaires sur le nom des genres.

Abstract: One new genus, Debrosania n. gen., and three new species are described from Kenya and Tanzania: Micraxylia brosi n. sp., from Kenya, Cardepia emmanueli n. sp., from Kenya, and Debrosania puechredoni n. sp., from Tanzania. These species were found among 38 specimens of Noctuidae determined by the author and collected by Mr. Emmanuel Bros de Puechredon, alias de Bros, in January1977, during his mini-expedition to Kenya and Tanzania. Notes are provided to the genera involved.

Key words: Africa, Axylia, Canary Is., Cardepia, Cardepia emmanueli n. sp., Cetola, China, Debrosania n. gen., Debrosania puechredoni n. sp., Discestra, Ethiopian, Hadeninae, Madagascar, Micragrotis, Micraxylia, Micraxylia brosi n. sp., Mongolia, Noctuinae, Odontestra, Ophiderinae, Pakistan, Russia, Sahara, Tridepia, Trichoclea, Turkey.

Constantino, L. M. 1993. Notes on Haetera from Colombia, with description of the immature stages of Haetera piera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 13-15.

Abstract: The early stages and a larval food plant are reported for the first time for Haetera piera (Linnaeus) from the upper Amazon. The life history is fully described from material collected at Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, in Southeastern Colombia. The larval food plant of H. piera is Spathiphyllum wallisii (Araceae), a new host plant family record for the Neotropical Satyrinae.

Key words: Amazon, Araceae, Arecaceae, biology, Central America, Costa Rica, Cyperaceae, Dulcedo, Ecuador, Gramineae, Haeterini, Heliconiaceae, larvae, life history, Marantaceae, Neckeraceae, Neotropical, Paradulcedo, Peru, Pierella, Poaceae, Pseudohaetera, Selaginellaceae, South America.

Bros, E. de. 1993. Lepidoptera collecting in Kenya and Tanzania. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 16-25.

Abstract: Situated in tropical Africa, on both sides of the Equator, Kenya and Tanzania possess an extraordinary rich Lepidoptera fauna (according to Larsen's latest book on Kenya: 871 species only for the Rhopalocera and Grypocera). The present paper reports on the author's participation in a non-entomological mini-expedition during January 1977 across those two countries, with comments on the areas where collecting was possible and practiced by him as a serious amateur lepidopterist. In addition there are photos of some interesting landscapes and, last but not least, a complete list of all the species captured and noted.

Resume : En pleine Afrique équatoriale, à cheval sur 1'Equateur, le Kenya et la Tanzanie possèdent une faune de Lépidoptères extraordinairement riche (871 espèces seulement pour les Rhopalocères et Hesperiides du Kenya, selon le tout récent ouvrage de Larsen). La présente note relate une mini-expédition non spécifiquement entomologique en Janvier 1977 à travers ces deux pays, avec commmentaires de 1'auteur, lépidoptériste amateur éclairé, sur les lieux où il a eu la possibilité de collectionner, récit agrémenté de quelques photos de biotopes intéressants et surtout avec la liste complète des espèces capturées et notées.

Key words: Acraeinae, Africa, Arctiidae, Cossidae, Danainae, distribution, Ethiopian, Eupterotidae, Hesperiidae, Limacodidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Psychidae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Satyrinae, Thaumetopoeinae.

Pyrcz, T. W. 1993. Memphis titan romeroi from Venezuela (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 26.

Pyrcz, T. W. 1993. New record of Memphis grandis from Venezuela (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 27-28.

Abstract: Memphis grandis Druce is recorded from southern Venezuela extending considerably the range of this species.

Key words: Amazon, Bolivia, Brazil, distribution, Neotropical, Peru, South America.

Garraway, E., and J. R. Parnell. 1993. Notes on the osmeteria of Papilio homerus larvae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 29-30.

Abstract: All larval instars of Papilio homerus have well developed osmeteria. Close up photography of living larvae shows the osmeteria are light pink in the first three instars and brick red in the fourth and fifth instars. Notes on the reluctance of mature larvae to extrude the osmeteria and protective camouflage are included.

Key words: biology, immatures, Jamaica, larval morphology, predation, protective coloration, West Indies.

Llorente-Bousquets, J., Descimon, H., and K. Johnson. 1993. Taxonomy and biogeography of Archaeoprepona demophoon in Mexico, with description of a new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 31-36.

Abstract: Archaeoprepona demophoon mexicana, new subsp. (montane Pacific Slope of Mexico, Oaxaca to Nayarit) is differentiated from Archaeoprepona demophoon gulina Fruhstorfer (eastern Tamaulipas southward through Atlantic and Pacific slopes of San Luis Potosi to Chiapas, to Colombia). The taxa reflect the major vicariance pattern in tropical Mexico - a segregate in the east and southeast and another in the south and west. Data on character variation, phenology and ecology are provided.

Key words: Archaeoprepona demophoon mexicana, new subsp., biogeography, Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, distribution, Honduras, Neotropical, Prepona, South America, taxonomy, vicariance.

Iftner, D. C., Shuey, J. A., and J. V. Calhoun. 1993. Hemiargus ammon (Lucas), a new butterfly for Jamaica (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 37-38.

Lemaire, C., and K. L. Wolfe. 1993. Two new Automeris from western Mexico (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 39-44.

Abstract: Automeris stacieae new sp. and Automeris ahuitzotli new sp. are described from the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in western Mexico. They belong to the groups of Automeris io (Fabricius) and Automeris cecrops (Boisduval) respectively. Both are montane species, inhabitants primarily of the Pacific slope of the Sierra Madre del Sur. Male and female gentalia are figured, species variation and distribution are indicated when known, and specific characters are discussed and compared with those of their most closely related species. The last instar larva of A. ahuitzotli is described, figured and compared with larvae of Mexican and southern USA species of the same group.

Resumen: Se describen Automeris stacieae sp. nov. y Automeris ahuitzotli sp. nov. de los estados de Guerrero y Oaxaca en México occidental. Pertenecen a los grupos de Automeris io (Fabricius) y de Automeris cecrops (Boisduval) respectivamente. Ambas son especies montañezas, habitants esencialmente de las vertientes pacíficas de la Sierra Madre del Sur. Se figuran los genitales de macho y hembra, se indican la variación y la distribución conocidas, y se discuten los caracteres específicos en comparación con las especies de más parentezco. Se describe e ilustra la larva de último estadío de A. ahuitzotli, comparándola con las de otras especies mexicanas y estadounidenses sureñas del mismo grupo.

Key words: Arizona, Automeris ahuitzotli new sp., Automeris stacieae new sp., Costa Rica, distribution, Fabaceae, genitalia, Guatemala, hostplants, immature stages, Leguminosae, Mexico, Sierra Madre del Sur, USA, variation.

Hernández, L. R., and T. C. Emmel. 1993. Cactoblastis cactorum in Cuba (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 45-46.

Abstract: The first definite establishment of the cactus-feeding phycitine moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) is recorded for Cuba (December 1992). It was described originally from Argentina and has been spreading through the West Indies and onto the United States mainland. Cuban larvae are illustrated in color.

Key words: Argentina, Bahamas, Cactaceae, Cuba, Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, West Indies.

Peigler, R. S. 1993. False gynandromorph of Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 47-48.

Abstract: An apparent female antenna on a male of Attacus atlas was found under magnification to be an aborted male antenna. The existence of true gynandromorphs of this species is reported.

Key words: Actias, antennae, Asia, Attacus, gynandromorph, Malaysia, Oriental, sexual mosaic.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, in Florida (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Phyllocnistinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 49-64.

Abstract:The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a pest of citrus and related Rutaceae in Asia, is reported as established in southern Florida from a recent introduction. Current distribution in Florida is noted, as well as potential native Rutaceae in Florida that larvae of citrus leafminer may attack. All known hostplants and parasitoids are listed. A bibliography of all citrus leafminer literature is included.

Key words: Africa, Asia, Australian, biology, Braconidae, Chalcidoidea, Chrysopidae, distribution, Elasmidae, Encyrtidae, endangered species, Ethiopian, Eulophidae, Eurytomidae, hostplants, Hymenoptera, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Loranthaceae, Nearctic, Neuroptera, North America, Oceania, Oleaceae, Oriental, Papilionidae, parasitoids, pheromones, Pteromalidae, Rutaceae, Tiliaceae.

Daniels, J. C., Minno, M. C., Emmel, T. C., Eliazar, P. J., and L. L. Groce. 1993. Egg color dimorphism in the endangered Schaus Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio aristodemus ponceanus, of south Florida (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(1): 65-66.

Abstract: Females of the Schaus Swallowtail (Papilio aristodemus ponceanus Schaus) lay dark green eggs and light green eggs in an approximately 1:2 ratio in the wild on Elliott Key, Biscayne National Park, southern Florida. This color dimorphism may be maintained as a balanced polymorphism by selection for cryptic matching of new and old growth foliage of the primary larval hostplant, torchwood (Amyris elemifera, Rutaceae).

Key words: Agathymus, behavior, biology, eggs, Florida Keys, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, Megathymidae, Mexico, Nearctic, oviposition, parasitoids, Rutaceae, Trichogrammatidae.

NOVEMBER 1993 Volume 4, Number 2

Emmel, T. C., and A. D. Warren. 1993. The butterfly faunas of the Kakamega Rain Forest and the Masai Mara Savanna in Kenya, East Africa. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 67-76.

Abstract: Western Kenya supports a rich butterfly fauna in several areas investigated during an August 1991 expedition, including especially Kakamega Forest Reserve northeast of Late Victoria, and Sekenani Camp, adjacent to the border of Masai Mara Game Reserve. This paper reports general observations made on Lepidoptera during an August 1991 expedition to these sites, and includes faunal lists of species encountered.

Key words: Acraeinae. biodiversity, butterflies, collecting, Danainae, Ethiopia, expedition, Hesperiidae, Libytheidae, Lycaenidae, Madagascar, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, photography, Pieridae, rain forest, Riodinidae, Satyrinae, savanna, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

Owen, D. F., and D. A. S. Smith. 1993. Danaus chrysippus and its polymorphic Müllerian mimics in tropical Africa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 77-81.

Abstract: Theoretically, Müllerian mimicry, in which there is convergence of coloration between unrelated unpalatable species, should lead to uniformity in appearance, not polymorphism. Hence the discovery in Africa of polymorphic Müllerian mimics in the Danainae and Acraeinae suggested an evolutionary problem of special interest. Field and laboratory work in Uganda and Sierra Leone in 1964-72 demonstrated a statistical association between the occurrence and relative frequencies of corresponding colour forms in Danaus chrysippus and Acraea encedon which was deemed as confirmation of the Müllerian relationship between the two species. There were, however, certain anomalies which at the time could not be resolved. Later (1976), it was discovered that what had been called A. encedon is in reality two sibling species, A. encedon and a new one, named as A. encedana. The two differ in the structure of both male and female genitalia and in the coloration and the food-plants of the larvae. Some color forms are shared, others are restricted to one species only. The recognition of the additional species has enabled a re-assessment of the polymorphic Müllerian association between D. chrysippus and the two Acraea species. What emerges is that throughout tropical Africa there is a close mimetic association between D. chrysippus and A. encedana, and a much weaker (in places, non-existent) association between D. chiysippus and A. encedon. The possible origin of the mimetic and non-mimetic polymorphism in all three species is discussed in terms of hybridization of previously allopatric and monomorphic populations which have met as a consequence of recent expansions of geographical range resulting from forest clearance and thespread of savanna-like conditions.

Key words: Acraea, Acraeinae, Commelinaceae, Danaus, Ethiopian, genetics, Ghana, Leguminosae, mimicry, Nigeria, polymorphism. Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, West Africa.

Riotte, J. C. E. 1993. A third larval form of Agrius cingulatus in Hawaii (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 82.

Garraway, E., Bailey, A. J. A., and T. C. Emmel. 1993. Contribution to the ecology and conservation biology of the endangered Papilio homerus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 83-91.

Abstract: Ecological and biological studies were conducted on the eastern population of Papilio homerus Fabricius between January 1991 and September 1992. Hernandia catalpaefolia Britton and Harris was the only confirmed larval food plant and only a small portion of the available plants was utilized at any time. Eight adult nectar sources were recorded. Immature stages were recorded throughout the year and there was no indication of distinct broods. Neither seasonal nor daily migration were observed. The ratio of females to males netted in the field was 1:3.5, that for animals reared was 1:1.4. Mating adults were observed in tandem for over 25 minutes. Hymenopterous egg parasitoids caused 76.5% mortality and bacterial infection caused high mortality among the larvae, prepupae and pupae. Population numbers appear to be naturally regulated. The establishment of a National Park system now gives protection to some of the vital habitat.

Key words: Acanthaceae, ants, Araceae, Araliaceae, bacteria, biology, Clethraceae, conservation, Cyatheaceae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Gramineae, Guttiferae, Hernandiaceae, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immature stages, Jamaica, larva, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, lizards, Malvaceae, mating, Mimosaceae, Musaceae, natural control, Papilionaceae, parasitoids, Pinaceae, predation, pupa, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae, Zingiberaceae.

Posla-Fuentes, M. 1993. An unusual form of Heliconius cydno from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 92.

Balcázar L., M. A. 1993. Butterflies of Pedernales, Michoacán, Mexico, with notes on seasonality and faunistic affinities (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 93-105.

Abstract: A list of 205 species of butterflies and skippers is presented for Pedernales, Michoacán, in western Mexico. The fauna belongs to five families: Nymphalidae with 31% of the total number of species, Hesperiidae with 28%, Lycaenidae 24%, Pieridae 11% and Papilionidae 7%. A low species richness and a high species richness seasonally, which seem to be related to the dry and humid seasons, respectively, was found. The fauna in the area has a clear affinity to that of the Pacific Slope and especially to other localities of the Balsas Basin.

Resumen: El presente trabajo es el primer listado lepidopterofaunístico para una localidad en el estado de Michoacán basado en recolecciones sistematicas. Un total de 205 especies son registradas por primera vez para Pedernales, Michoacán. Aunque la lista no es completa, se considera que continen alrededor de un 80-85% del total de especies presente en el area. Del total de especies, un 31% pertenece a la familia Nymphalidae, 28% a Hesperiidae, 24% a Lycaenidae, 11% a Pieridae y 7% a Papilionidae, composicion que concuerda con datos reportados para regiones neotropicales. Durante 1986, se encontraron dos epocas bien claras en cuanto a su riqueza especifica con base en la presencia de imagos, una baja que va de eneroa junio, y otra alta de julio a diciembre. Al comparar el numero total de especies presentes por mes contra el diagrama ombrotermico, se encontro relacion entre la epoca humeda y alta riqueza especifica y entre la epoca seca y baja riqueza. Si bien, esta correspondencia no es exacta, ya que los dos perfodos de riqueza se encuentran desplazados ligeramente a la derecha de sus correspondientes epocas de humedad. Los meses de mayor riqueza son octubre y septiembre, al final de la epoca humeda y el de menor riqueza es abril, justo despues del mes mas seco. Un analisis de afinidades con otras faunas utilizando el mdice de Simpson y metodos feneticos dio como resultado dos fenogramas, uno para cada superfamilia, el de Papilionoideacon un mdice de correlacion cofenetica muy pobre (r = 0.65) y el de Hesperioidea pobre (r = 0.77). Se encontraron dos conglomerados de localidades para la Papilionoidea, uno formado por localidades de la vertiente del Golfo y el Soconusco, Chiapas, y otro unicamente de localidades de la vertiente del Pacifico. El Valle de Mexico no quedo incluido en ningún conglomerado. En el caso de Hesperioidea, solo se observa el conglomerado de las localidades del Pacifico. En ambos fenogramas, Pedernales aparece mas cercano a Rancho Viejo-Tepoztlan, Morelos que a ninguna otra localidad.

Key words: Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Caribbean, distribution. Ebenaceae, fauna, Gramineae, Hesperiidae, Leguminosae, Lycaenidae, Mesoamerica, Moraceae, Neotropical, Nymphalidae. Papilionidae, Pieridae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, taxonomy, zoogeography.

Tanner, R. 1993. Courtship behavior of Dryadula phaetusa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 106.

Johnson, K., and A. Sourakov. 1993. Hairstreak butterflies of the genus Serratofalca (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 107-118.

Abstract: Serratofalca includes six species distributed from Belize southward to Argentina. Although very similar in generalized wing pattern, interspecific structural differences are great. As revised, often synonymized historical taxa Theda cerata Hewitson and Thecla palumbes Druce are titular taxa of two divergent species groups, former with sclerotized female genital structures occurring in lineal configuration, latter in a spiral. The "cerata Group" includes S. cerata (Amazon Basin) and new species: S. sasha n. sp. (Central America and western South America), S. gorgoniensis n. sp. (Gorgona Island, Pacific continental shelf) and S. callilegua n. sp. (NW Argentina). The "palumbes Group" includes S. palumbes (Amazon Basin, Guyana Shield) and new species: S. iguapensis n. sp. (SE Brazil). S. cerata and S. palumbes are sympatric in the eastern Amazon Basin: S. palumbes and S. sasha are sympatric in the western Amazon Basin; S. iguapensis is divergent and may be the most primitive member of the groupwith some characters suggestive of a sister genus Klaufera Johnson 1991.

Key words: Amazon, Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Calycopis, Calystyrma, Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Eumaeini, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Klaufera, Neotropical. Nicaragua. Panama, Peru, Serratofalca callilegua n. sp., Serratofalca gorgoniensis n. sp., Serratofalca iguapensis n. sp., Serratofalca sasha n. sp., South America, Strymon, Surinam, Thecla, Theclinae, Venezuela.

Salazar, J. A. 1993. Notes on some populations of Heliconius heurippa in Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 119-121.

Abstract: The aim of this work is to give some information about the habitat and habits of Heliconius heurippa Hewitson, 1854, in Colombia,with a population from Eastern Cordillera. This species is comparatively studied in relation to genealogy and taxonomic status with Heliconius cydno Doubleday, 1847, and Heliconius melpomene Linnaeus, 1758.

Key words: behavior, Brazil, distribution, Neotropical, Passifloraceae, South America.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Butterflies of the Florida Keys, by Marc C. Minno and Thomas C. Emmel. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 122.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Mosquito Control Pesticides: Ecological Impacts and Management Alternatives, edited by Thomas C. Emmel and John C. Tucker. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 122.

Austin, G. T., and O. H. H. Mielke. 1993. Two new nymphalid species from western Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 123-126.

Abstract: Two new species of Nymphalidae, a Castillo (Castilia schmitzorum n. sp.) and an Adelpha (Adelpha incomposita n. sp.), are named and described from Rondônia, Brazil.

Key words: Adelpha, Adelpha incomposita n. sp., Castillo, Castilia schmitzorum n. sp., Dagon, Guyana, Phyclodes, Rondônia, Telenassa.

Pyrcz, T. W. 1993. New Memphis from Venezuela (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 127-131.

Abstract: Memphis salinasi, n. sp., is described from the Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela.

Key words: Anaea, biogeography, Bolivia, Central America, Colombia, distribution, Fountainea, Memphis salinasi n. sp., Mexico, Neotropical, Peru, South America, Trinidad, Uruguay.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula, by A. Stephen Corbet and H. M. Pendlebury; 4th revised edition by J. N. Eliot (Color plates by B. D'Abrera for this edition). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 132.

Newport, M. 1993. Book Review: A Practical Guide to Butterflies and Moths in Southern Africa, edited by S. E. Woodhall. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 132.

Angulo, A. O., and T. S. Olivares. 1993. Biology and immature stages of the bromeliad base borer, Castnia psittacus, in Chile (Lepidoptera: Castniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 133-138.

Abstract: The biology and immature stages and genitalia of the bromeliad base borer, Castnia psittacus (Molina), are described. An account of other hostplant is given.

Key words: Bromeliaceae, chaetotaxy, Chile, distribution, hostplants, larvae, morphology, Neotropical, pupae, South America.

Hall, J. P., and K. R. Willmott. 1993. Temporal and elevational additions of distribution for Costa Rican butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 139-141.

Abstract: Some new records are presented which extend the known distribution and flight season of butterflies in Costa Rica. This includes an unidenfied Adelpha morphologically similar to Adelpha boreas.

Key words: Adelpha, Battus, behavior, butterflies, Callicore, Catastica, Central America, Costa Rica, Dynamine, Epiphele, Eunica, Memphis, Mesoamerica, Nessaea, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Pieridae, trap

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Illustrations of Moths in Taiwan, 1-5, by B. S. Chang. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 142.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Illustrations of Day-flying Moths in Taiwan, by Hsiau-Yue Wang. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 142.

Wolfe, K. L., and R. S. Peigler. 1993. Life history of Anisota dissimilis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Ceratocampinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 143-145.

Abstract: The immature stages of Anisota dissimilis from Mexico are described and figured in color. The head of the mature larva is orange-brown, and the body is black with a broad red lateral stripe on each side, with patches of white granular mottling on each segment. Larvae were reared to maturity on four oak species. Reproductive activity of the moths commences in midday, and copulation continues until after dusk.

Resumen: Se describen e ilustran a colores los estadios inmaduros de Anisota dissimilis de Mexico. La larva madura tiene la cabeza de color café anaranjado, el cuerpo negro con una raya gruesa de color rojo lateralmente, con manchas granulosas de bianco en cada segmento. Las larvas fueron criadas hasta madurez empleando cuatro especies de Quercus. La actividad reproductiva de las mariposas comienza por el mediodfa con acoplamiento continuo hasta despues del anochecer.

Key words: egg, Fagaceae, Guerrero, immatures, larva, Mexico, oakworms, phytogeny, pupa, rearing.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Swallowtail Butterflies of the Americas: A Study in Biological Dynamics, Ecological Diversity, Biosystematics, and Conservation, by Hamilton A. Tyler, Keith S. Brown, Jr., and Kent H. Wilson. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 146.

Wolfe, K. L., and C. Lemaire. 1993. A new Copaxa from Guatemala (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Saturniinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 147-149.

Abstract: Copaxa evelynae n. sp. is described from the province of Zacapa in southeastern Guatemala. It is closely related to Copaxa cvdippe (Druce), and like C. cydippe, is a montane species associated with cloud forest containing pines. Male and female genitalia are figured, individual variation and the habitat are illustrated in color, known distribution is indicated, and specific characters are discussed and compared with those of C. cydippe.

RESUMEN. Se describe Copaxa evelynae sp. nov. de la provincia de Zacapa en el sureste de Guatemala. Muestra estrecho parentesco con Copaxa cydippe (Druce), e igual a C. cydippe es una especie montanez asociada con el bosque neblinoso que contenga pinos. Se figuran los genitales de macho y hembra, se ilustran a colores algunas variaciones individuates y el habitat, se indica su distribution conocida y se discuten y comparan sus caracteres especificos en comparacion con los de C. cydippe.

Key words: Argentina, Copaxa evelynae n. sp., distribution, habitat destruction, Honduras, Lauraceae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, taxonomy.

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Book Review: Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly, edited by Stephen B. Malcolm and Myron P. Zalucki. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 150.

Garraway, E., Bailey, A. J. A., Farr, T., and J. Woodley. 1993. Studies on the Jamaican Kite Swallowtail, Eurytides (Protesilaus) marcellinus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(2): 151-154.

Abstract: The eggs of E. marcellinus are unsculptured except for a pattern of numerous, incised small circles. Three larval morphs were observed: blue-green, pale brown and black. Pupation may last 7-10 days or there might be pupal diapause which is broken by moisture. The only known food plant is Oxandra lanceolata, a tree which is mostly common in the central and western parishes. The only known breeding site is at Rozelle in the eastern parish of St. Thomas, but indications are that other sites are likely to occur in central Jamaica.

Key words: Annonaceae, biology, diapause, eggs, hostplants, immatures, larva, larval polymorphism, pupa.

JUNE 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 2

Austin, G. T., Brock, J. P., and O. H. H. Mielke. 1993. Ants, birds, and skippers. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(Suppl. 2): 1-11.

Abstract: A large number of skipper species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) were found associated with army ant swarms in Brazil. These butterflies aggregate to feed on the droppings of birds attracted to the insects flushed by advancing swarms. In contrast to the female-dominated use of bird droppings by ithomiine butterflies, skipper use was almost exclusively by males.

Key words: Argentina, army ants, Aves, behavior, birds, Brazil, droppings, Formicidae, Hesperiidae, Hymenoptera, Mexico, Neotropical, nutrients, skippers.

Steinhauser, S. R., and G. T. Austin. 1993. New species of Hesperiidae from Costa Rica. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(Suppl. 2): 12-20.

Abstract: Four new species of Hesperiidae are described from Costa Rica: Staphylus unicornis n. sp., Staphylus parvus n. sp., Artines rica n. sp., Phemiades rufescens n. sp.

Key words: Artines, Artines rica n. sp., Bolla, Costa Rica, Hesperiinae, Neotropical, Panama, Phemiades, Phemiades rufescens n. sp., Propertius, Staphylus, Staphylus parvus n. sp., Staphylus unicornis n. sp.

Austin, G. T. 1993. A review of the Phanus vitreus group (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(Suppl. 2): 21-36.

Abstract: The "vitreus" group of Phanus was reexamined. Four new species are described: Phanus albiapicalis n. sp.. Phanus confusis n. sp., Phanus ecitonorum n. sp., and Phanus grandis n. sp. Two were previously recognized as different but insufficient material existed. The seven included species appear as two subgroups.

Key words: Argentina, Bolivia. Brazil. Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Hesperiidae, Honduras, Mexico, Neotropical. Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Phanus. Phanus albiapicalis n. sp., Phanus confusis n. sp., Phanus ecitonorum n. sp., Phanus grandis n. sp., Suriname, taxonomy, Trinidad, Venezuela.

September 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 3

Heppner, J. B. 1993. Keys to Families of Lepidoptera. Tropical Lepidoptera 4(Suppl. 3): 1-28.

Abstract: Keys to all 124 Lepidoptera families worldwide are presented. The classification of the order Lepidoptera is summarized worldwide. Common names are proposed for all recognized families. The keys are in the two main world languages: Chinese and English.

Key words: diversity, faunal regions, phylogeny, taxonomy.

August 1993 Volume 4, Supplement 4

Brown, L. N., and R. F. Mizell, III. 1993. The clearwing borers of Florida (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 4(Suppl. 4): 1-21.

Abstract: The 41 species of clearwing moths (Sesiidae) recorded from Florida are described and figured. Information is also summarized on life history, hostplants, flight seasons, sex attractants, and diurnal activity patterns of the Florida clearwing borers. The control of pest species is also included.

Key words: Aceraceae, Alcathoe, Aquifoliaceae, behavior, Betulaceae, biology, Canada, Caprifoliaceae, Carmenta, Castanaceae, Casuarinaceae, Compositae, Cornaceae, Cucurbitaceae, distribution, Ebenaceae, ecology, Euhagena, Europe, Fagaceae, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immature stages,Juglandaceae, larvae, Leguminosae, life history, Melittia, Mexico, mimicry, Myricaceae, Nyssaceae, North America, Oleaceae, Onagraceae, Osminia, Paranthrene, Pennisetia, pests, Pinaceae, Podosesia, Pompilidae, Ranunculaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Sannina, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Synanthedon, taxonomy, Umbelliferae, United States, Vitacea, Vitaceae, West Indies.

May 1994 Volume 5, Number 1

Goh, D. 1994. Life history of Trogonoptera brookiana albescens in Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 1-5.

Abstract: The complete life history of Trogonoptera brookiana albescens is documented for the first time in Malaysia. It serves to show the success of breeding this supposedly highland species on the edge of lowland forest where the host, Aristolochia foveolata (Aristolochiaceae) can also adapt to lowland conditions.

Key words: Acanthaceae, Aristolochiaceae, biology, Borneo, distribution, egg, Indonesia, larvae, morphology, Oriental, Palawan, Philippines, pupae, Southeast Asia, Sumatra, Verbenaceae.

Harry, J. L. 1994. Papilio xuthus in Hawaii: A Photo Life History (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 6-7.

Emmel, T. C. 1994. Book Review: Il Genere Battus: Tassonomia e Storia Naturale, by Tommaso Racheli and Lorraine Parisat. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 8.

Brown, Jr., K. S., and A. V. L. Freitas. 1994. Juvenile stages of Ithomiinae: overview and systematics (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 9-20.

Abstract: Larvae and pupae are illustrated and described for 66 species in 40 of the 53 genera of Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae); eggs are shown for 60 species in 43 genera. With the use of 60 polarized characters drawn from these stages, a preliminary phylogeny is presented for 51 species in 41 genera, and compared with the genus-level phylogenies based on adults only (concepts of Fox and D'Almeida) and based on a sum of 138 new adult and juvenile characters (170 derived states). Two new genera are described: Ollantaya Brown & Freitas n. gen. (Type-species Ithomia canilla Hewitson) and Talamancana Haber, Brown & Freitas n. gen. (Type-species Dircenna lonera Butler & Druce).

Key words: Apocynaceae, Bolivia, Brazil, characters, chemical preadaptation, coevolution, Colombia, colonization, Danainae, Dircennini, Ecuador, eggs, El Salvador, Gesneriaceae, Godyridini, Heliconiini, hostplants, Ithomiinae, Ithomiini, juveniles, larvae, Mechanitini, Melinaeini, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Napeogenini, Neotropical, Oleriini, Ollantaya n. gen., Panama, Peru, phylogeny, pupae, Solanaceae, South America, Talamancana n. gen., taxonomy, Tellervini, Tithoreini, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Ehrlich, P. R., Sparrow, H. R., Sisk, T. D., and G. C. Daily. 1994. Notes on butterfly distributions in southern Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 21-23.

Abstract: Extensions of geographic and/or elevational ranges are given for forty species of Costa Rican Papilionidae, Pieridae, and Nymphalidae. The work is based on studies on the Pacific slope of southern Costa Rica and provides butterfly distributions that expand on those treated in DeVries (1987), Brown (1988), and Austin (1992).

Key words: Adelpha, Aeria, Archaeoprepona, Archonias, Caligo, Catoblepia, Catonephele, Ceratinia, Chloreuptychia, Chlosyne, Cissia, Consul, Cyllopsis, Diaethria, Dismorphia, elevation, Epiphile, Eurema, Eurytides, Hamadryas, Heliconius, Hypanartia, Lycorea, Memphis, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Opsiphanes, Panama, Papilio, Papilionidae, Pierella, Pyrrhogyra, Phoebis, Pieridae, Pycina, range extension, Smyrna, trapping, Taygetis, Tegosa.

Emmel, T. C. 1994. Book Review: Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: Selected Studies, edited by Diomedes Quintero and Annette Aiello. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 24.

Otero, L. D. 1994. Early stages and natural history of Sea sophronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Eurytelinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 25-27.

Abstract: Natural history notes are given for Sea sophronia (Godart) (Nymphalidae: Eurytelinae), covering aspects of behavior, development and descriptive notes of early stages. Plukenetia penninervia (Euphorbiaceae) is reported as the host plant in northern Venezuela. Time of development of 7 field collected eggs was of 32-34 days (eggs = 6 days, larvae = 17-18 days, pupae = 9 days).

Key words: biology, Catonephele, Ectima, egg, Eunica, Euphorbiaceae, Hamadryas, Heliconius, hostplant, immature stages, larva, morphology, Myscelia, Neotropical, pupa, South America, Venezuela.

Emmel, T. C. 1994. Book Review: Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), edited by T. R. New. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 28.

Wolfe, K. L., and A. Pescador. 1994. Caio richardsoni: its immature stages and natural history (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Arsenurinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 29-32.

Abstract: The previously undescribed immature stages of Caio richardsoni are described and illustrated in color. Larvae were reared in the field and in the laboratory on Ceiba pentandra and Chorisia sp. (both Bombacaceae) and underwent five instars.

Resumen: Se describen e ilustran a colores los estadios inmaduros previamente indescritos de Caio richardsoni. Las larvas fueron criadas en el campo y en el laboratorio, se alimentaron de Ceiba pentandra y Chorisia sp. (Bombacaceae ambas) y experimentaron cinco estadios.

Key words: Arsenura, Bombacaceae, chaetotaxy, Costa Rica, Colombia, Dysdaemonia, Guerrero, hostplants, Jalisco, larvae, larval behavior, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Oaxaca, pupae, Sonora, Titaea.

Eitschberger, U. 1994. Ein Gynandromorph von Argema mittrei aus Madagascar (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 33-34.

Wolfe, K. L., and M. A. Balcázar-Lara. 1994. Chile's Cercophana venusta and its immature stages (Lepidoptera: Cercophanidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 35-42.

Abstract: The immature stages of Cercophana venusta (Walker) are described and illustrated in color, and scanning electron microscope photographs of the previously undescribed first instar larva are presented. Larvae fed upon Maytenus boaria (Celastraceae) and had four instars. The systematic position of the genus is discussed.

Resumen: Se describen e ilustran a colores los estadios inmaduros de Cercophana venusta y se presenta un estudio con microscopio electrónico de barrido de la larva de primer estadio previamente indescrita. Las larvas se alimentaron de Maytenus boaria y experimentaron cuatro estadios. Se discute la posición taxonómica del género.

Key words: Agliinae, Arsenurinae, Celastraceae, Ceratocampinae, Cercophaninae, chaetotaxy, Citheronia, Eacles, Hemileuca, hostplants, Hyalophora, Janiodinae, larvae, larval behavior, Microdulia, morphology, Neocercophana, Neotropical, pheromones, Polythysana, pupae, Saturniidae, Saturniinae, South America, taxonomy, Valdivian.

Matthews, D. L., Habeck, D. H., and B. Landry. 1994. Immature stages of Exelastis plume moths in Florida (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae: Platyptiliinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 43-53.

Abstract: Last instar larvae and pupae are described for three plume moths, Exelastis cervinicolor, E. rhynchosiae, and E. pumilio. A key to the known larvae of this legume-feeding genus is given for Florida. The new combination Exelastis rhynchosiae, formerly Stenoptilia, is presented. Comparisons of the immature and adult characters of the three species are discussed to support the new combination.

Key words: Adaina, Africa, Arkansas, Asteraceae, Austral Is., behavior, biology, Borneo, Cayman Is., chaetotaxy, China, Compositae, Cuba, distribution, Ecuador, Fabaceae, Fuscoptilia, Galapagos Is., Gentianaceae, Haiti, hostplants, immature stages, India, Jamaica, larva, Leguminosae, Marantaceae, Marasmarcha, Marquesas, Maryland, morphology, Nearctic, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, Oxalidaceae, plume moth, Pterophorinae, Puerto Rico, pupa, Ryukyu Is., Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sphenarches, Stenoptilia, Taiwan, Texas, Tomotilus, USA.

Balcázar-L., M. A., and L. Vázquez-G. 1994. A new subspecies from Mexico of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 54-56.

Abstract: A new subspecies of Antheraea is described from the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico: A. polyphemus tuxtlasensis n. subsp.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Antheraea de la región de Los Tuxtlas, en Veracruz, México: A. polyphemus tuxtlasensis n. subsp.

Key words: Antheraea polyphemus tuxtlasensis n. subsp., Aves, Fagaceae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Pieridae, Pinaceae, Veracruz.

Parra, L. E., and H. Ibarra-Vidal. 1994. Nuevo esqueletizador del "Coihue" (Nothofagus dombeyi) en Chile, Basileura osornoensis sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 57-64.

Abstract: The larva, pupa and imago of Basileura osornoensis n. sp. are described. This incurvariid moth skeletonizes the leaves of southern beech, Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.). The species has a univoltine life cycle. The monophyly of the Basileura and Semicauda is sustained by way of the violet metallic luster of the forewings.

Key words: Australia, Basileura osornoensis n. sp., bionomics, Fagaceae, Myrtaceae, Neotropical, Perthida, Protaephagus, Semicauda, South America, taxonomy, Valdivian.

Davis, D. R. 1994. Neotropical Microlepidoptera XXV. New leaf-mining moths from Chile, with remarks on the history and composition of Phyllocnistinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(1): 65-75.

Abstract: Prophyllocnistis epidrimys n. gen., n. sp., and Phyllocnistis puyehuensis n. sp., are described from Chile. The larva of Prophyllocnistis epidrimys is a serpentine leafminer on Drimys winteri chilensis (DC) A. Gray and D. winteri andina Reiche. Morphologically, the species appears most allied to the North American Metriochroa psychotriella Busck, which is also recognized as a member of the subfamily Phyllocnistinae along with the Old World genus, Cryphiomystis. Either the last instar larva or pupa of Prophyllocnistis epidrimys is heavily parasitized by a braconid, Clinocentrus sp. The life history of Phyllocnistis puyehuensis is unknown. The known stages of both species are fully illustrated. The leaf mines of Prophyllocnistis resemble those of the earliest gracillariid fossil mines known from the Cenomanian of the earliest Upper Cretaceous (97 m.y.a.). Discovery of the latter suggests that all three subfamilies of the Gracillariidae arose when the angiosperms were beginning to radiate.

Key words: Africa, Argentina, Artofodina, Asclepiadaceae, biology, Braconidae, Callisto, Cenomanian, Cryphiomystis, Dalceridae, Europe, fossil record, Gracillariinae, Hymenoptera, hypermetamorphosis, leafminer, life history, Lithocolletinae, Lyonetiidae, Megalopygidae, Meliaceae, Metriochroa, Omix, parasitoids, Parornix, Phyllocnistinae, Phyllocnistis, Phyllocnistis puyehuensis n. sp., plant host, Prophyllocnistis n. gen., Prophyllocnistis epidrimys n. sp., Rubiaceae, Tineidae, Valdivian, Winteraceae, Zygaenoidea.

November 1994 Volume 5, Number 2

Pyrcz, T. W. 1994. Butterflies and conservation in the national parks of Thailand. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 77-82.

Abstract: The conservation of natural areas and butterflies in Thailand is discussed. Thailand has one of the largest national park and forest reserve systems in Asia, yet protection is poor, partially due to protective laws favorable to forest exploitation. Several areas in Thailand were visited, producing a varied sample of the rich Thai butterfly fauna.

Key words: Amathusiinae, Amathuxidia, Anthene, Appias, Arhopala, Asia, Atrophaneura, behavior, Bhutanitis, Burma, Cambodia, Cepora, Cethosia, China, Cupha, Cyrestis, Danainae, Danaus, Delias, Discophora, Dysphania, Eurema, Euthalia, Everes, Geometridae, Graphium, Hesperiidae, Hypolimnas, Idea, India, Jamides, Labadea, Lamproptera, Lethe, Lycaenidae, Malaysia, mimicry, Neptis, Nymphalidae, Oriental, Pantoporia, Papilio, Papilionidae, photography, Pieridae, Prioneris, Satyrinae, Southeast Asia, Stichophthalma, Tagiades, Tanaecia, Teinopalpus, Troides, Ypthima, zoogeography.

Larsen, T. B. 1994. Diopetes kakumi, a new hairstreak from Kakum National Park, Ghana (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 83-84.

Abstract: The Lycaenid Diopetes kakumi n. sp. is described from the Kakum National Park in Ghana. Both sexes are illustrated in colour. The male colour pattern differs strongly from any other member of the genus.

Key words: Africa, behavior, Cameroon, Deudorix, Diopetes kakumi n. sp., distribution, Ethiopian, Gabon, Ghana, Hypokopelates, Philodeudorix, Rhopalocera, Senegal, taxonomy, Togo.

Grodnitsky, D. L., Dudley, R., and L. Gilbert. 1994. Wing decoupling in hovering flight of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 85-86.

Abstract: Wing uncoupling during hovering flight is described in Papilionidae, with Parides neophilus (Geyer), from Trinidad, as a particular example. Energy expenditures and predation dangers for hovering butterflies are also discussed.

Key words: behavior, Eriocraniidae, flight, Heliconiinae, Heliconius, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Ithomiinae, Lycaenidae, Malvaceae, Mechanitis, Melitaeinae, Micropterigidae, morphology, Musaceae, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Papilioninae, Parides, Pieridae, Riodinidae, Verbenaceae.

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 1994. Four new species of riodinids from western Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 87-91.

Abstract: Four new species of Riodinidae in the genera Theope Doubleday, 1847, Mesosemia Hübner, [1819], and Symmachia Hübner, [1819], are named and described from western Ecuador, with additional observations on behavior.

Key words: behavior, Calospila, Central America, Colombia, Mesoamerica, Mesosemia hazelae n. sp., Neotropical, Panama, perching behavior, Symmachia wiltoni n. sp., Symmachiini, taxonomy, Theope iani n. sp., Theope pepo n. sp.

Miller, J. Y. 1994. Book Review: Butterflies of the Florida Keys, by Marc C. Minno and Thomas C. Emmel. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 92.

Hedges, S. B., and K. Johnson. 1994. Calisto tasajera in the Hispaniolan Cordillera Central (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 93-94.

Abstract: Calisto tasajera, a large satyrid butterfly previously known only from its type series, is figured in color from specimens collected recently in remote swamp-grass habitat on Pico Duarte, 1800m. A key including C. tasajera in the lyceia complex of Calisto is provided; voucher material distributed to several museums is listed. Contrasting lowland xerophiles typifying the complex, C. tasajera is montane and mesophilic, its disjunct distribution in the Hispaniolan Cordillera Central apparently reflecting a pattern of fire refugia.

Key words: Caribbean, distribution, Dominican Republic, habitat, Neotropical, Pinaceae, West Indies.

Eitschberger, U. 1994. Wunder der Natur: Puppe und Gespinst einer tropischen Microlepidopteren (Lepidoptera: Urodidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 95-96.

Austin, G. T. 1994. Hesperiidae of central Rondônia, Brazil: comments on Haemactis, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 97-100.

Abstract: The two known species of Haemactis (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) are discussed and their male genitalia illustrated. A new species is described from western Brazil. A key to males is given.

Key words: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, distribution, Ecuador, Haemactis albamarita n. sp., Neotropical, Panama, Peru, taxonomy.

Salazar, J. A. 1994. Two new records of Agrias claudina intermedia from eastern Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 101-102.

Abstract: New and recent records of Agrias claudina intermedia Fassl are noted from Villavicencio (Meta) and the "bota caucana" zone (Cauca Oriental) in the eastern slope of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia.

Key words: Amazon, Bolivia, distribution, Neotropical, Peru, South America.

Wolfe, K. L. 1994. A new Paradirphia from Central America (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 103-104.

Abstract: Paradirphia rectilineata n. sp. is described from the departments of Ocotepeque in northern Honduras and Metapan in northern El Salvador. It is distinctive from other members of the genus in having a well defined, straight postmedial line on the forewing, and does not appear to be closely related to other known species. It is a montane species associated with cloud forest. Male and female imagines are illustrated in color, their genitalia are figured, known distribution is indicated, and specific characters are discussed.

Resumen: Se describe Paradirphia rectilineata sp. nov. de los departamentos de Ocotepeque en el norte de Honduras y Metapan en el norte de El Salvador. Se distingue de otros miembros del genero por la linea postmedial recta y bien definida de la ala anterior, y no se muestra estrecho parentezco con otra especie. Es una especie montanez asociada con el bosque neblinoso. Se ilustran a colores el imago de macho y de hembra, se figuran sus genitales, se indica su distribution conocida y se discuten sus caracteres especfficos.

Key words: Bolivia, distribution, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Paradirphia rectilineata n. sp., taxonomy.

Honey, M. R., and J. Wojtusiak. 1994. A new species of Apospasta sensu lato from Sao Tome (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 105-107.

Abstract: Apospasta tamsi n. sp. is described from Sao Tome, and its relationships are discussed.

Key words: Africa, Apospasta tamsi n. sp., Ethiopian, Rougeotiana, taxonomy, Uganda.

Llorente-B., J., and A. Luis-M. 1994. Book Review: Mariposas de Chiapas, by R. G. de la Maza and J. de la Maza. Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 108.

Hormazábal, M. E., Parra, L. E., and H. Ibarra-Vidal. 1994. Biologia reproductiva y morfologia de Doina collimamolae, nueva especie de esqueletizador del Arrayán (Luma apiculata) (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 109-116.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie de Oecoforido para Chile. Sobre la base de los caracteres externos y de la genitalia del imago es asignada al genero Doina Clarke, 1978. Se describen ademas la larva, pupa y su biología. Es un insecto native esqueletizador de Luma apiculata (A. P. de Candolle) Burret, perteneciente a la familia de las Myrtaceae. Posee a lo menos un ciclo anual; la fase larval se encuentra de preferencia desde fines de invierno a fines de verano. El periodo de vuelo se extiende desde fines de primavera a mediados de verano. Se ilustran los caracteres del imago y de los estados inmaduros.

Abstract: A new species of oecophorid for Chile is described. It is placed in the genus Doina Clarke, 1978, based on the external characters and genitalia of the adult. The larva, pupa and biology are also described. This insect feeds by skeletonizing leaves of Luma apiculata (A.P. de Candolle) Burret, belonging to the Myrtaceae family. It has at least one annual cycle; the larva is found mainly from the end of winter through the end of summer. The flight period is between the end of spring and the middle of summer. The adult and immature instar characters are illustrated.

Key words: Australia, biology, Chile, Doina collimamolae Parra n. sp., immatures, larva, leafminer, Microlepidoptera, morphology, Myrtaceae, Neotropical, New Zealand, pupa, South America, Valdivian.

Davis, D. R. 1994. A bilateral gynandromorphic Harmaclona tephrantha from Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 117-122.

Abstract: The external morphology of a bilateral gynandromorphic tineid moth, Harmaclona tephrantha (Meyrick), is discussed. Both male and female sexual characters are approximately evenly divided between the left (female) and right (male) halves of the body, as shown by wing, abdominal, and genital structures. A brief review of the causes of gynandromorphism is provided, along with references to previous publications which discussed the genital morphology of gynandromorphic Lepidoptera.

Key words: Abraxas, Asia, Bhutan, Brunei, chromosomes, Diptera, Geometridae, gynandromorph, Harmaclona, homology, Lycaenidae, Micrerethista, Mitoura, morphology, Nymphalidae, Oriental, Pseudatteria, Southeast Asia, Speyeria, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Tortricidae.

Heppner, J. B., and B. Landry. 1994. A new Tebenna species from the Galápagos Islands (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 123-125.

Abstract: Tebenna galapagoensis, n. sp., is described from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

Key words: Asteraceae, Colombia, Compositae, Ecuador, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Oceania, Rapa Id., South America, taxonomy, Tebenna galapagoensis n. sp.

Heppner, J. B., and B. Landry. 1994. A new sun moth from the Galápagos Islands (Lepidoptera: Heliodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2): 126-128.

Abstract: Heliodines galapagoensis, n. sp., is described for the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The larvae have been reared on Cryptocarpus pyriformis HBK. (Nyctaginaceae).

Key words: Ecuador, Gelechioidea, Heliodines galapagoensis n. sp., Neotropical, Nyctaginaceae, Oecophoridae, Pyralidae, Stathmopodinae, taxonomy, Yponomeutoidea.

MAY 1995 Volume 6, Number 1 (Part 1)

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1995. Bait trapping for butterflies in Kenya. Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 1-2.

Abstract: The effectiveness of bait trapping is analyzed for the equatorial rain forest butterfly fauna of the Kakamega Forest Reserve in Kenya, East Africa. The advantages and deleterious features of different trap constructions are discussed.

Key words: Acraea, Acraeinae, Africa, baits, Bicyclus, biodiversity censusing, Charaxes, collecting techniques, Cymothoe, Ethiopian, Kenya, Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae, Satyrinae, traps, Vanessula.

Sourakov, A. 1995. Notes on life histories of Lepidoptera of Las Alturas, Costa Rica. Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 3-4.

Abstract: Food plant records for Mechanics menapis saturata Godman & Salvin (Nymphalidae), Hypothyris lycaste callispila (Bates) (Nymphalidae), and Oxytenis albilunulata Schaus (Oxytenidae), from Las Alturas Biological Station, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, are given.

Key words: behavior, Catasticta, Central America, conservation, Dismorphia, dispersal, Euptychiini, hostplants, Hypothyris, immature stages, Ithomiinae, Mechanitis, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Oxytenidae, Oxytenis, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pronophilini, Satyrinae.

Austin, G. T., and T. J. Riley. 1995. Portable bait traps for the study of butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 5-9.

Abstract: The construction of two types of bait traps for butterflies is outlined. Suggestions are made for effective baits and trap placement.

Key words: baits, butterflies, collecting techniques, inventory, tropical.

Ross, G. N. 1995. One butterfly's poison is another's feast: Ithomiines on droppings (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 10.

Pyrcz, T. W. 1995. A new Memphis from the Pantepui, Venezuela (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 11-13.

Abstract: Memphis montesino, n. sp., is described from the Pantepui highlands of southeastern Venezuela. Its systematic status in relation to allied taxa is discussed.

Key words: Amazon, Anaea, behavior, Bolivia, Canaima, Costa Rica, Catasticta, Darien, Dismorphia, Ecuador, endemism, forest refuges, Heliconiinae, Ithomiinae, Memphis montesino n. sp., Panama, Pereute, Peru, premontane forest, Pronophilini, speciation, taxonomy.

Ross, G. N. 1995. A butterfly lek: Ithomiine hairpencils (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 14.

Hernández, L. R., Alayón-Garcia, G., and D. S. Smith. 1995. A new subspecies of Parides gundlachianus from Cuba (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 15-20.

Abstract: A new subspecies of the endemic Cuban swallowtail butterfly, Parides gundlachianus C. Felder & R. Felder, is described, P. g. alayoi n. subsp., from a western locality, in Pinar del Rio Province. Field observations on the behavior and habitats of these populations and in centers of abundance of the typical insect in eastern Cuba are described. Variation in adult size is recognized as an altitudinal cline. Biogeographical aspects of this and other Cuban papilionids are discussed, and the need for conservation and protection of the western populations is stressed.

Key words: altitudinal cline, Araneae, Argentina, Aristolochiaceae, behavior, biogeography, biology, Bolivia, Boraginaceae, Brazil, Caribbean, Compositae, conservation, Cuba, distribution, Leguminosae, Mexico, Papilio, Paraguay, Parides gundlachianus alayoi n. subsp., population biology, Reptilia, Verbenaceae, West Indies.

Warren, A. D. 1995. A new species of Codatractus from western Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 21-25.

Abstract: Codatractus sallyae n. sp., is described from twelve males from the states of Jalisco and Colima in western Mexico. Photographs of adult males and illustrations of male genitalia are presented for C. sallyae and the two most similar species in western Mexico, C. arizonensis (Skinner, 1905), and C. melon (Godman & Salvin, 1893). A discussion on the differentiation of the three species, and notes on the behavior and distribution of Codatractus in Mexico, are presented.

Resumen: Se describe Codatractus sallyae sp. n., a partir de doce machos provenientes de los estados de Jalisco y Colima, del occidente de Mexico. Se presentan fotograffas de machos adultos e ilustraciones de los genitales masculines para C. sallyae y las dos especies mas similares del occidente de Mexico: C. arizonensis (Skinner, 1905), and C. melon (Godman y Salvin, 1893). Se discute sobre la diferenciacion de las tres especies, y se ofrecen notas sobre la conducta y distribucion de Codatractus en Mexico.

Key words: Central America, Codatractus sallyae n. sp., Colima, Consul, Diaethria, Dismorphia, Guatemala, Jalisco, Melinaea, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Oaxaca, Pereute, Phanus, Pieridae, Vacerra.

Inoue, T. 1995. A female Agrias beata with anomalous hindwings from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 26.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1995. Early stages of Calisto grannus Bates on Hispaniola (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 27-30.

Abstract: The egg and larvae of the first, second, and last instars of Calisto grannus Bates (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) are described from the type locality at Valle Nuevo, La Vega Province, Dominican Republic, on the island of Hispaniola.

Key words: Antilles, biogeography, biology, Calisto, Caribbean, Dominican Republic, eggs, Gramineae, Hispaniola, hostplants, immatures, larvae, morphology, Neotropical, West Indies.

Austin, G. T., and K. Johnson. 1995. Theclinae of Rondônia, Brazil: Arcas, with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 31-39.

Abstract: Three new species of Areas are distinguished among samples of the genus from the lowland tropical rainforest in the western Amazon drainage of central Rondônia, Brazil: Areas magnifica n. sp., Areas viriditas n. sp., and Areas marginata n. sp. Morphological distinctions of the genitalia corroborate superficial differences noted in wing pattern and androconial brands. Samples of other Eumaeini genera from this study area contain numerous examples of new species occurring in sympatry and/or synchrony with more well-known taxa. These afford an opportunity for study of ecological and biological differences separating these taxa.

Key words: Amazon, Areas magnifica n. sp., Areas marginata n. sp., Areas viriditas n. sp., cryptic species, Eiseliana, Eumaeini, Heoda, Neotropical, South America, species diversity.

Calhoun, J. V. 1995. A population of Anthanassa frisia in central Florida (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1):40-42.

Abstract: The distribution in Florida of Anthanassa frisia (Poey) is discussed and a new site in central Florida is reported.

Key words: Acanthaceae, Achalarus, Appias, Bahamas, biology, Cyllopsis, Cymaenes, Danaus, distribution, Dryas, ecology, Electrostrymon, Enodia, Hesperiidae, hostplants, Hypolimnas, Incisalia, Kricogonia, Lycaenidae, Marpesia, Ministrymon, Mitoura, Phoebis, Phyciodes, Pieridae, Poanes, population biology, Satyrinae, Siproeta.

Chuah, H. H., and D. S. Cushing. 1995. Eurema albula (Pieridae) and Anthanassa argentea (Nymphalidae): new records for the United States (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 43-44.

Abstract: Two butterflies, Eurema albula (Cramer) and Anthanassa argentea (Godman & Salvin), new to the United States, were collected in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, in November 1993.

Key words: Antigua, Argentina, Compositae, Costa Rica, distribution, El Salvador, Guatemala, hostplants, Leguminosae, Mexico, Nearctic, Nicaragua, Panama, Phyciodes, Phyciodini, St. Vincent, Texas, Tobago, Trinidad, West Indies.

Casanueva, M. E., and A. O. Angulo. 1995. Ectoparasitic mites (Acari) on Andino-Patagonian noctuid moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 45-46.

Eichlin, T. D. 1995. New data and a redescription for Melittia oedipus, an African vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 47-51.

Abstract: A species of clearwing moth from Kenya, Melittia oedipus Oberthür, is redescribed and illustrated. New information on this species is provided. Its host plant in Kenya, a cucurbit (Coccinia grandis), is a weed pest introduced into Hawaii. The vine borer is being evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent against this weed.

Key words: Africa, Argentina, Australia, biocontrol, Cannenta, Chile, Cucurbitaceae, Ethiopian, Hawaii, Honduras, Kenya, Leguminosae, Mexico, Tanzania, Thailand, USA, Zanzibar.

Ross, G. N. 1995. Pollen gathering: Heliconiines collecting pollen (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 52.

Lödl, M. 1995. A new Hypena deltoid moth from Zaire (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hypeninae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 53-54.

Abstract: Hypena reginae n. sp., is described from Zaire. The female adult, the lateral view of the head and the female genitalia are illustrated. The species is closely related to Hypena euprepes Fletcher, 1961.

Key words: Africa, Ethiopian, Hypena reginae n. sp., Hypeninae, Madagascar, Noctuidae, taxonomy, Zaire.

MAY 1995 Volume 6, Number 1 (Part 2)

Park, K.-T. 1995. Gelechiidae of Taiwan. I. Review of Anarsia, with descriptions of four new species (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 55-66.

Park, K.-T. 1995. Gelechiidae of Taiwan. II. Hypatima and allies, with descriptions of a new genus and five new species (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 67-85.

NOVEMBER 1995 Volume 6, Number 2

Krizek, G. O. 1995. Neotropical Papilionidae and Pieridae in photography. Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 87-93.

Abstract: Presented here is a small sample of 33 photographs from life of 29 species of Neotropical Papilionidae and Pieridae from Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, mostly photographed on Emmel-Holbrook butterfly expeditions within the last 11 years.

Key words: Agnas, Appias, Anteos. Archomas, Ascia, Battus, Brazil, Coniza, Costa Rica, Dismorphia, Ecuador, Enantia, Eurytides, haballia, Heraclides, Leptophobia, Lieinix, Mexico, Mimoides, Morpho, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Parides, Phoebis, Perrhybris, Peru, Pieriballia, Venezuela.

Ross, G. N. 1995. A butterfly roundtable: Ithomiines on fruit (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 94.

Boireau, P. 1995. Cannibalisme observé chez des chenilles de Elymnias hypermnestra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 95-97.

RESUMÉ: Des cas de cannibalisme répétés ont été observés chez Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus) dans des élevages menés dans des conditions optimales sous serre. Après une brève description de la biologie de cette espèce et celle des conditions de son élevage, ce phénomène est analysé et discuté. Ici, le cannibalisme apparaît agir écologiquement en régulateur des populations.

Key words: Arecaceae, behavior, cannibalism, competition, eggs, India, larvae, Malaysia, Oriental, Palmae, Philippines, pupae, Southeast Asia.

Ross, G. N. 1995. A pollen basket: Lycorea as pollinator (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 98.

Roque-Albelo, L., Hernández, L. R., and D. S. Smith. 1995. Rediscovery of Chioides Marmorosa in Cuba (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 99-102.

Abstract: The endemic Cuban skipper Chioides marmorosa, unrecorded for over seventy years, has been rediscovered at a site in La Habana Province. Previous descriptions of adult coloration, based on old museum specimens, are corrected. The habitat, flight behavior, and possible larval foodplant and voltinism of the butterfly are discussed. The size of the population is unknown, but the site adjoins cultivated land and requires rigorous protection and conservation.

Key words: Antilles, Argentina, Atalopedes, Bahamas, behavior, Caribbean, Compositae, conservation, distribution, Dryas, Epargyreus, Eunica, extinction, Grenada, Heliconiinae, Heliconius, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Leguminosae, Nymphalidae, Papilio, Papilionidae, Paraguay, Pheraeus, St. Vincent, Sapindaceae, Urbanus, Verbenaceae, voltinism, West Indies, Windward Islands.

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 1995. Two new species of Satyrines from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 103-105.

Abstract: Two new species of Satyrinae are described from eastern Ecuador.

Key words: Colombia, Euptychiini, Megeuptychia monopunctata n. sp., Neotropical, Peru, South America, Splendeuptychia toynei n. sp., taxonomy.

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 1995. Two new species of Adelpha from eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 106-109.

Abstract: Two new species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819], are named and described from eastern Ecuador, with additional observations on behavior and distribution.

Key words: Adelpha argentea n. sp., Adelpha shuara n. sp., cloudforest, endemism, Neotropical, Peru, South America, taxonomy.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1995. Two new species of Mesene from western Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 110-112.

Abstract: Two new species of Mesene Doubleday 1847 are described from western Ecuador, and a new generic combination is proposed for Synargis cyneas (Hewitson, 1874).

Key words: Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guyana, hilltopping, Mesene babosa n. sp., Mesene citrinella n. sp., Mexico, Neotropical, Nymphidium, Nymula, Panama, perching behavior, Peru, Symmachiini, Synargis, taxonomy.

Lemaire, C., and K. L. Wolfe. 1995. A new Meroleuca from eastern Colombia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 113-115.

Abstract: Meroleuca (Meroleucoides) amarillae n. sp. is described from the Department of Santander in central Colombia. It is distinct from other Meroleucoides by a combination of superficial and genitalic characters which are described. Male and female are illustrated in color, their genitalia are figured and taxonomic relationships are discussed. M. (M.) amarillae is an Andean species associated with cloud forest of moderate altitude.

Resume: Meroleuca (Meroleucoides) amarillae n. sp. est décrit du département de Santander en Colombie centrale. Il diffère des autres Meroleucoides par plusieurs caractères de l'habitus et des genitalia qui seront précises. Le mâle et la femelle et leurs armures genitales sont figurés et la position taxonomique de 1'espèce indiquée. M. (M.) amarillae est une espèce andine vivant en foret humide de moyenne altitude.

Resumen: Meroleuca (Meroleucoides) amarillae n. sp. se describe del Departamento de Santander en Colombia central. Se distingue de otras Meroleucoides por una combination de caracteres superficiales y de genitalia los cuales se describen. El macho y la hembra son ilustrados a color, se figuran su genitalia y se discute sus relaciones taxonomicas. M. (M.) amarillae es una especie andina asociada con bosque neblinoso de altitude moderada.

Key words: Andes, Colombia, Dirphia, Dirphiella, distribution, Fagaceae, hostplants, Meroleuca (Meroleucoides) amarillae n. sp., Neotropical, Ormiscodes, Paradirphia, Peru, Rhodirphia, South America, Sterculiaceae, taxonomy.

Lemaire, C. 1995. A new genus and five new species of Central and South American Hemileucinae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 116-120.

Abstract: All the following new taxa have in common that they are inhabitants of the cordilleras in Central and South America, at elevations from 2000-4600m. Arias n. gen., A. inbio n. sp., is a day flier, while 4 other new species are nocturnal. Three of these belong to the genus Meroleuca and one to the genus Periphoba. Adults of the five species are illustrated in color; their genitalia are figured, their known range is indicated, and their phylogenetic relationships are discussed.

Resume: Les taxa décrits ci-dessous ont pour caractère commun d'habiter les cordillères centro et sud-americaines a des altitudes comprises entre 2000-4600m. Arias n. gen., inbio n. sp., est diurne, les quatre autres espèces sont nocturnes, trois de celles-ci appartiennent au genre Meroleuca, la quatrieme est un Periphoba. Les adultes sont illustrés en couleur, les armures genitales figurées, la repartition geographique est indiquée et la position taxonomique précisée.

Key words: Andes, Arias inbio n. sp., Catasticta, Catharisa, Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, distribution, Eubergioides, Hemileuca, Meroleuca (Meroleuca) decaensi n. sp., Meroleuca (Meroleuca) mossi n. sp., Meroleuca (Meroleucoides) fassli n. sp., Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Periphoba ockendeni n. sp., Peru, Pieridae, South America, taxonomy.

Lemaire, C., and L. E. Parra. 1995. A new Ormiscodes from Chile (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 121-122.

Abstract: Ormiscodes penai n. sp. is endemic to Chile, known only from a restricted area between 30°S and 33°S. It is distinct from the other Ormiscodes (sensu stricto not sensu Michener, 1952) by the combination of several superficial characters which are indicated below. Male and female are illustrated, their genitalia are figured and taxonomic relationships are discussed.

Resumen: Ormiscodes penai n. sp. es una especie endemica de Chile, solo se conoce entre los 30° y los 33° S. Se distingue de las otras especies de Ormiscodes, sensu stricto (no sensu Michener, 1952) por la combination de varies caracteres superficiales los cuales se indican mas abajo. Se ilustran el macho y la hembra, la estructura de la armadura genital, y se discute su relation con otras especies.

Key words: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Dirphia, distribution, Ormiscodes penai n. sp., South America, taxonomy.

Austin, G. T. 1995. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Drephalys, with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 123-128.

Abstract: Five species of Drephalys (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) occur in the Cacaulandia area, Rondônia, Brazil: D. phoenice, D. oriander, D. alcmon, D. croceus n. sp., and D. tortus n. sp. Genitalia of the male of D. oriander, female of D. phoenice, and both sexes of D. croceus, D. tortus, D. alcmon, and, for comparison, D. dumeril are illustrated, those of females and new species for the first time. Drephalys appears as a number of species groups defined by genitalic morphology.

Key words: distribution, Drephalys croceus n. sp., Drephalys tortus n. sp., Formicidae, French Guiana, genitalia, Guatemala, Guyana, Hymenoptera, Neotropical, Peru, South America, Surinam, taxonomy.

Hsu, Y.-F. 1995. Discovery of Sibataniozephyrus from mainland China (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 129-130.

Abstract: Sibataniozephyrus is reported from mainland China for the first time; a new species, S. lijinae, closely related to S. kuafui Hsu & Lin of Taiwan is described. The presumed larval host of S. lijinae is Fagus lucida Rehder & Wilson (Fagaceae).

Key words: Fagaceae, hostplant, Japan, Oriental, Sibataniozephyrus lijinae n. sp., Taiwan, taxonomy, Theclini.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1995. Five new species and a new genus of riodinid from the cloud forests of eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 131-135.

Abstract: The new genus Machaya is described, in addition to five new species in the genera Anteros Hübner, [1819], Euselasia Hübner, [1819], Menander Hemming, 1939, Symmachia Hübner, [1819], and Machaya n. gen. All of these taxa were discovered in cloud forest habitats in eastern Ecuador.

Key words: Adelotypa, Anteros nubosus n. sp., aphytophagy, Apodemia, Argyrogrammana, Astraeodes, bait trapping, Bolivia, Calliona, Callistium, Calospila, Calydna, Charitini, Colombia, Dianesia, Dinoplotis, Echenais, Emesis, Esthemopsis, Eurybiini, Euselasia chinguala n. sp., Helicopini, hilltopping, Imelda, Lemoniini, Lycaenidae, Machaya n. gen., Machaya obstinata n. sp., Menander aldasi n. sp., Mesosemiini, myrmecophily, Neotropical, Nymphidiini, Pachythone, Pandemos, perching behavior, Pixus, Riodinini, Roeberella, Setabis, Stalachtini, Symmachia fassli n. sp., Symmachiim, Zabuella.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1995. Notes on the genus Argyrogrammana, with descriptions of five new species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 136-143.

Abstract: Type specimens of the extremely rare and/or poorly known species in the Argyrogrammana amalfreda (Staudinger, [1887]) complex (group "Bariniformes" of Stichel, 1911, 1930) are illustrated, with notes on taxonomy and distribution. In addition, five new species are describe from eastern Ecuador.

Key words: Amazon, Argyrogrammana aparamilla n. sp., Argyrogrammana bonita n. sp., Argyrogrammana caelestina n. sp., Argyrogramman celata n. sp., Argyrogrammana natalita n. sp., behavior, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, cloudforest, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, hilltopping, Neotropical, Peru, perching behavior, South America, taxonomy, Trinidad.

Lödl, M. 1995. Hypena cherylae n. sp., a new deltoid moth from South Africa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hypeninae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 144-145.

Abstract: Hypena cheryiae n. sp., is described from South Africa. The male adult, the lateral view of the head and the male genitalia are illustrated. The female is unknown. The species is placed near Hypena polycyma Hampson, 1902.

Key words: Africa, Ethiopian, Hypena cheryiae n. sp., Madagascar, Natal, taxonomy.

Heppner, J. B. 1995. Lacturidae, new family (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 146-148.

Abstract: The pantropical family LACTURIDAE, new family, is given a formal description and compared with other families in Zygaenoidea.

Key words: Africa, Aictis, Anticrates, Australian, Bismarck Is., Borneo, Callithrinca, Celastraceae, Central America, Chile, Congo, Costa Rica, distribution, Epopsia, Ethiopian, Eustixis, Guatemala, Gymnogramma, hostplants, India, Indonesia, Lactura, LACTURIDAE new family, larvae, Megalopygidae, Mexico, Micronesia, Micropterigidae, Moraceae, morphology, Nearctic, Neotropical, New Guinea, North America, Nosymna, Oriental, Papuan, Philippines, pupae, Pyralidae, Samoa, Sapotaceae, Sarawak, Sikkim, Somabrachyidae, South Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, taxonomy, Thyridectis, Toiana, Trychnomera, USA, Yponomeutidae, Yponomeutoidea, Zygaenidae.

Heppner, J. B., Balcázar-L., M. A., and H. Y. Wang. 1995. Larval morphology of Ogygioses caliginosa from Taiwan (Lepidoptera: Palaeosetidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 149-154.

Abstract: The 1st instar larva of Ogygioses caliginosa Issiki & Stringer is described from Taiwan. This is the first information on larvae of the family Palaeosetidae, being only the second family in Hepialoidea where such data are known. Special features of Ogygioses larvae include a prognathous head with a clypeus protruded over the labrum, stemmata numbering only 3, and compact antennae recessed into circular cavities. Also unusual are the circular spiracles with encircling rings. Larval characters conform to Hepialoidea, although more specialized. In comparison to Palaeosetidae larvae, larval characters are summarized for other families of primitive Lepidoptera where larvae are known.

Key words: Acanthopteroctetidae, Agathiphagidae, Anomosetidae, Asia, Assam, Australia, behavior, chaetotaxy, Chile, ecology, Eriocraniidae, Europe, Genustes, habitat, Hepialidae, Hepialus, Heterobathmiidae, India, Lophocoronidae, Micropterigidae, Mnesarchaeidae, moss, Neopseustidae, Neotheoridae, Neotropical, Oriental, Palaeoses, Prototheoridae, Queensland, rainforest, thanatosis.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1995. Life history of Greta diaphana from the Dominican Republic (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 155-157.

Abstract: The life history of Greta diaphana (Drury) (Ithomiinae) (assigned to ssp. charadra Schwartz) from the Cordillera Central in the Republica Dominicana, island of Hispaniola, is described, and its food plant, Cestrurn coelophlebium O. E. Schulz (Solanaceae) is reported.

Key words: Caribbean, Central America, Costa Rica, Cuba, Episcada, eggs, Hispaniola, hostplants, Hymenitis, Hypoleria, Ithomiinae, Jamaica, larval morphology, Neotropical, pupae, Solanaceae, Trinidad, West Indies.

Ross, G. N. 1995. A webless Charlotte: Ithomiines in webs (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6(2): 158.

MAY 1996 Volume 7, Number 1 (Part 1)

Orr, A. G., and C. L. Hauser. 1996. Kuala Belalong, Brunei: a hotspot of Old World butterfly diversity. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 1-12.

Abstract: Butterflies were sampled extensively over a two year period in an area, approximately 1 km² in extent, of lowland mixed dipterocarp forest in Brunei, N.W. Borneo. A total of 342 species were recorded, and from the species accumulation curve the total number of species present in the area was estimated to be 464, or nearly half the total Bornean fauna. With respect to the Bornean total, Papilionidae and Pieridae were proportionally better represented than Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae or Lycaenidae, a result which is probably partly a function of sampling bias, but may also reflect a more general distribution of species of the first two families. Of 151 commoner species, 80 were restricted in their distribution within the area, in some cases to very small areas of a few hundred m2. When species recorded in this study and published records for the surrounding Ulu Temburong region (up to 2000m asl) were combined and compared with species lists for Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak (50 km distant), and Mount Kinabalu National Park, Sabah (200 km distant), slightly greater similarities were found between Temburong and Mulu, than Temburong and Kinabalu. Combining the species lists for the three areas leads to a total of 666 recorded species, or two thirds of the Bornean total, suggesting that ultimately almost all Bornean species could be found in these three areas.

Key words: Borneo, distribution, Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Malaysia, New Guinea, Nymphalidae, Oriental, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Riodinidae, Sabah, Sarawak, Southeast Asia, species-richness.

Benyamini, D., and K. Johnson. 1996. Review of austral Heoda, with a new species from Chile (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 13-20.

Abstract: Austral Heoda species H. atacama Johnson and Miller, H. nivea, H. shapiroi and H. suprema (all Johnson, Miller and Herrera) and H. wagenknechti (Ureta) are figured in color and their known distributions elaborated from historical and recently acquired material. A remarkably patterned new species, H. erani, is described from a narrow belt of Puna vegetation in Tarapaca, Chile. The new species' restricted biotope reemphasizes the diversity of high Andean Lycaenidae known only from habitats of extremely limited distribution. Entomologists sampling depauperate high montane and austral biomes should look for species of this genus; species of Heoda are currently known from Patagonia north in the high Andes to Colombia and new species have recently been discovered in Colombia and Ecuador. The Puna vegetation belt in northern Chile harbors six known endemic species of lycaenid butterflies; three others are known from restricted mesic quebradas within the lowland absolute desert. Plant diversity, percentage of plant cover and number of species of butterflies are directly related.

Key words: Abloxurina, Andes Mts., Argentina, Asteraceae, Bolivia, Cactaceae, Chlorostrymon, Colombia, Compositae, ecology, Ecuador, Eiseliana, Gramineae, habitat, Hemiargus, Heoda erani n. sp., Hesperiidae, hostplants, Hydrocotylaceae, Hylephila, Hypsochila, Junonia, keys, Leguminosae, Lycaeninae, Madeleinea, Malvaceae, Ministrymon, Nabokovia, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Patagonia, Penaincisalia, Peru, Pieridae, Polyommatinae, Pyrgus, Scrophulariaceae, Shapiroana, South America, Strymon, Strymonina, Tatochila, taxonomy, Tericolias, Theclinae, Valdivian, Vanessa.

Austin, G. T., Haddad, N. M., Méndez, C., Sisk. T. D., Murphy, D. D., Launer, A. E., and P. R. Ehrlich. 1996. Annotated checklist of the butterflies of the Tikal National Park Area of Guatemala. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 21-37.

Abstract: An inventory of the butterflies of Tikal National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Peten in northern Guatemala, is being conducted as part of a long-term study of butterfly populations, their habitat requirements, and their responses to land use changes. Here, we present a list of 535 species recorded from the Tikal area from February 1992 through November 1994 with annotations on their phenologies, habitat associations, and relative abundances. This is the first checklist of butterflies for any region of Guatemala, and includes 92 species not previously recorded from the country. Species richness for the Tikal site is greatest during the dry season and lowest at the end of the wet season. The largest number of species was recorded from forest edge habitat and the smallest was in forested habitats. Many species (especially nymphalids) were encountered in both primary forests and secondary, often highly disturbed, forests.

Resumen: Se realize un inventario de las mariposas diurnas del Parque Nacional Tikal y areas aledanas en el Departamento de Peten en el norte de Guatemala, como inicio de un estudio a largo plazo de las poblaciones de mariposas y su respuesta a los cambios del uso de la tierra. Se presenta una lista de 535 especies registradas en el area de Tikal desde febrero de 1992 hasta noviembre de 1994, con observaciones sobre su fenologfa, asociaciones con habitats, y su abundancia relativa. Esta es la primera lista de mariposas diurnas de una region de Guatemala. La lista incluye 92 especies registradas por la primera vez en Guatemala. La riqueza de especies es mayor en la epoca seca y menor al final de la epoca lluviosa. El mayor numero de especies se registro en los habitats de borde, y el menor numero en el interior del bosque. Muchas especies (particularmente Nymphalidae) comparten tanto el bosque primario como el secundario y tambien el bosque alterado.

Key words: Central America, conservation, distribution, faunal composition, habitat associations, Hesperiidae, inventory, Lycaenidae, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Peten, phenology, Pieridae, Rhopalocera.

Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: The Emperor Moths of Namibia, by Rolf Oberprieler. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 38.

Larsen, T. B. 1996. Book Review: Carcasson's African Butterflies: An Annotated Catalogue of the Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea of the Afrotropical Region, edited by P. R. Ackery, C. R. Smith, and R. I. Vane-Wright. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 38.

Luis-Martínez, A., Llorente-Bousquets, J., and I. Vargas-Fernández. 1996. Distribución geográfica, estacionalidad y comportamiento de Diaethria asteria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 39-44.

Resumen: Se describe la hembra de Diaethria asteria (Godman & Salvin), se comenta la variation de ambos sexos y se discute su distribution geografica y altitudinal, sus preferencias de habitat y sus habitos; tambien se describe su estacionalidad y su abundancia.

Abstract: The female of Diaethria asteria (Godman & Salvin) is described. Also, variation in both sexes, geographic and altitudinal distribution, in this species are discussed, as well as its preferences of habitat and habits, seasonality and abundance.

Key words: Colima, Jalisco, México, Nayarit, Neotropical, Nymphalinae, Papilionoidea.

Austin, G. T., and K. Johnson. 1996. Theclinae of Rondônia, Brazil: Iaspis Kaye, taxonomic comments and descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 45-59.

Abstract: Iaspis is a colorful genus of Neotropical Theclinae (Lycaenidae). The seven previously recognized species are briefly characterized and two additional species, Thecla exiguus H. H. Druce and Thecla castimonia H. H. Druce, newly associated with the genus based on examinations of types and other material. Lectotypes are designated for Thecla beera Hewitson, T. castitas H. H. Druce and T. verania Hewitson. Twelve species of Iaspis were found during studies near Cacaulandia, Rondônia, Brazil. Of these, only Iaspis thabena (Hewitson) and I. verania represented described species. The remaining ten species, Iaspis rufa n. sp., Iaspis grandis n. sp., Iaspis rubricunda n. sp., Iaspis flava n. sp., Iaspis purpurata n. sp., Iaspis ornata n. sp., Iaspis minuta n. sp., Iaspis ambiguanota n. sp., Iaspis fumosa n. sp., and Iaspis sinenota n. sp., are described and illustrated. The results of this paper further stress the importance of carefully studying local faunal samples with reference to a consilience of internal and external features and correctly associating names with comparable constellations of characters in historical type material.

Key words: Ecuador, Eumaeini, Iaspis ambiguanota n. sp., Iaspis flava n. sp., Iaspis fumosa n. sp., Iaspis grandis n. sp., Iaspis minuta n. sp., Iaspis ornata n. sp., Iaspis purpurata n. sp., Iaspis rubricunda n. sp., Iaspis rufa n. sp., Iaspis sinenota n. sp., Neotropical, Rhamma, Thecla.

Lemaire, C., and D. H. Janzen. 1996. A new Pseudodirphia from Costa Rica and Panama (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 60-62.

Abstract: Pseudodirphia lacsa Lemaire is described from upper montane areas of Costa Rica and Panama. It is distinct from its closest relative, Pseudodirphia biremis (Draudt) by a combination of characters that are indicated below. Male and female are illustrated in color, genitalia figured, and taxonomic relationships discussed. The geographic distributions of Pseudodirphia lacsa and Pseudodirphia biremis are defined.

Resume: Pseudodirphia lacsa Lemaire est décrit du Costa Rica et de la République de Panama. Il diffère de 1'espèce la plus voisine, Pseudodirphia biremis (Draudt) par un ensemble de caractères qui seront precisés. Le mâle et la femelle sont figurés en couleurs et leurs armures génitales représentées. La position taxonomique de 1'espèce nouvelle est indiquée. Les habitats respectifs de Pseudodirphia lacsa et de Pseudodirphia biremis sont définis.

Key words: Amazon, Andes, Brazil, Central America, Colombia, Dirphia, Dirphiopsis, distribution, Ecuador, genitalia, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Onniscodes, South America, taxonomy.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1996. The genus Theope: four new species and a new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 63-67.

Abstract: Four new species and a new subspecies of riodinid in the genus Theope Doubleday, 1847, are described from Central and South America: Theope brevignoni n. sp., Theope dabrerae n. sp., Theope devriesi n. sp., Theope kingi n. sp., Theope sisemina tabacona n. ssp.

Key words: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guyana, hilltopping, Neotropical, Panama, Peru, Theope brevignoni n. sp., Theope dabrerae n. sp., Theope devriesi n. sp., Theope kingi n. sp., Theope sisemina tabacona n. ssp.

Warren, A. D., and L. González-Cota. 1996. Rediscovery of Dalla bubobon in Michoacán, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Heteropterinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 68-70.

Abstract: Four males of Dalla bubobon (Dyar, 1921), were collected at Los Chorros del Varal, Los Reyes, Michoacán, Mexico, in July, 1990. Only three other, very old specimens of D. bubobon were previously known in collections. A short description of bubobon is provided, including illustrations of adults and the male genitalia. Dalla bubobon is compared to similar species of Piruna and Dalla that occur in western and southern Mexico, primarily using genitalic characters.

Resumen: Se colectaron cuatro machos de Dalla bubobon (Dyar, 1921), en Los Chorros del Varal, Los Reyes, Michoacán, Mexico, en Julio, 1990; solo se conocfan tres ejemplares antiguos de D. bubobon en colecciones. Se presenta una description corta de bubobon, con ilustraciones de los adultos y los genitales masculinos. Se compara D. bubobon con especies muy similares de Piruna y Dalla del occidente y sur de Mexico, usando la estructura de los genitales principalmente.

Key words: Amblyscirtes, Dalla, Dardarina, distribution, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Piruna, Quasimellana, taxonomy, Windia.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1996. Notes on the genus Argyrogrammana, Part 2, with one new species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 71-80.

Abstract: The species of the Argyrogrammana trochilia (Westwood, [1851]) complex and Argyrogrammana stilbe (Godart, [1824]) complex (groups "Trochiliiformes" and "Stilbeformes" respectively, of Stichel, 1911, 1930) are illustrated (including many type specimens), with notes on taxonomy and distribution. In addition, a new species (A. pastaza n. sp.) is described from the cloud forests of eastern Ecuador, and a revised classification is proposed for the entire genus Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932.

Key words: Argyrogrammana pastaza n. sp., Baeotis, Bolivia, Brazil, cloud forest, Clusiaceae,Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guttiferae, hilltopping, hostplants, Neotropical, perching behavior, Peru, taxonomy.

Torres-Núñez, R., Hall, J. P. W., Willmott, K. R., and K. Johnson. 1996. A new genus of "elfin" butterflies from the northern high Andes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 81-86.

Abstract: Podanotum n. gen. (tribe Eumaeini, infratribe Thecloxurina), a new genus of high Andean "elfin"-like hairstreak butterflies, is described from two new species recently discovered in Colombia and Ecuador: Podanotum clarissimus n. sp. and Podanotum metallicus n. sp. The morphology of Podanotum places the genus in the "loxurina" subclade of the infratribe and is highly autapomorphic, but its wing shape more closely resembles that of the sister "arria" subclade. Brilliant dorsal "tinfoil "-like iridescence in the new genus strongly resembles that of certain sympatric species of Lymanopoda Westwood, [1851] (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). The adaptive significance of this dorsal iridescence is discussed in the light of field observations and current data concerning possible cases of mimicry in Lymanopoda.

Resumen: Podanotum (tribu Eumaeini, infratribu Thecloxurina), un genera nuevo de mariposas licenidas del grupo de las "elfins" procedente de las grandes alturas Andinas, es descrito a partir de dos especies nuevas recientemente descubiertas en Colombia y Ecuador. La muy ostensible morfologia autopomorfa de Podanotum permite colocarlo en el subclado "loxurina" de la infratribu. Sin embargo, la forma de las alas se parece mas a la del subclado hermano "arria". El brillo iridiscente de la superficie dorsal semejante a papel metalico en el nuevo genero le confieren un marcado parecido a simpatricas especies de Lymanopoda Westwood, [1851] (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Se discute el significado adaptativo de la iridiscencia dorsal considerando las observaciones de campo y los datos recientes sobre posibles casos de mimetismo en Lymanopoda.

Key words: Abloxurina, Caerofethra, Candora, Chlorostrymon, Colombia, Ecuador, Eumaeini, hilltopping, Lymanopoda, mimicry, morphology, Neotropical, Podanotum n. gen., Podanotum clarissimus n. sp., Podanotum metallicus n. sp., Pons, Pseudolucia, Rhamma, Shapiroana, taxonomy.

DeVries, P. J., and J. P. W. Hall. 1996. Two new species of Costa Rican butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 87-90.

Abstract: Two new taxa, Mesosemia harveyi n. sp., and Theope guillaumei cecropia n. ssp., in the family Riodinidae, are described from Costa Rica and Panama. Remarks on their taxonomy, natural history and distribution are provided.

Key words: Amazon, behavior, Brazil, Cecropiaceae, Central America, French Guiana, hostplant, larval behavior, life history, Mesoamerica, Mesosemia harveyi n. sp., Mexico, Neotropical, Panama, taxonomy, Theope guillaumei cecropia n. ssp., Urticaceae.

Sourakov, A. 1996. Notes on the genus Calisto, with descriptions of the immature stages (Part 1) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(1): 91-112.

Abstract: Immature stages of eight species of the genus Calisto Hübner (Calisto grannus dilemma González, C. hysius Godart, C. obscura Michener, C. confusa confusa Lathy, C. confusa debarriera Clench, C. batesi Michener, C. archebates Ménétriès, C. sommeri Schwartz and Gali, and C. pulchella Lathy) are illustrated, described, and compared. Characters of immature stages, such as egg, larval, and pupal structures and color patterns, are found to be of taxonomic value. Correlations between these characters and ecological strategies employed by immature stages of different Calisto species are found. On the basis of these observations, taxon debarriera is synonymized with confusa and assigned a form status, while C. grannus grannus and C. grannus dilemma are confirmed to be conspecific. In contrast, C. batesi and C. hysius, as well as C. sommeri and C. grannus, are proved to be separate species. Immature stages of C. pulchella proved to be morphologically very distinct from the other Calisto species, supporting observations on the adults. Foodplant records and observations on egg and first instar larval morphology are provided for C. galii Schwartz, C. tasajera González, Schwartz & Wetherbee, C. schwartzi Gali, and C. areas Bates.

Key words: Calisto, Caribbean, Central America, Dioptidae, eggs, Gramineae, Poaceae, Hispaniola, hostplants, larval morphology, Neotropical, pupae, systematics, West Indies.

NOVEMBER 1996 Volume 7, Number 2

Easton, E. R., and W.-W. Pun. 1996. New records of moths from Macau, Southeast China. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 113-118.

Abstract: Records of 145 species of moths are listed for the Portuguese territory of Macau, of which 127 are new records.

Key words: Agaristinae, Arctiidae, Asia, China, Cossidae, distribution, Geometridae, Hong Kong, hostplants, Lasiocampidae, Limacodidae, Lymantridae, Malaysia, Metarbelidae, Noctuidae, Nolinae, Notodontidae, Oriental, Psychidae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Southeast Asia, Sphingidae, Syntominae, Taiwan, Tortricidae, Uraniidae, Zygaenidae.

Scriber, J. M., and R. C. Lederhouse. 1996. Illustrated field notes on Papilio astyalus pallas in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 119-120.

Abstract: Papilio astyalus females oviposited on Citrus trees in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, during May 1994. Immatures ranging from eggs to final instar larvae were found on the same trees. Females and immatures are illustrated.

Key words: Argentina, behavior, Brazil, Central America, eggs, El Salvador, Honduras, hostplants, immatures, larvae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, oviposition, Rutaceae, Texas, USA.

Vargas-Fernández, I., Llorente-Bousquets, J., and A. Luis-Martínez. 1996. Distribución y fenología de tres especies del genero Eunica en México (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 121-126.

Resumen: Se analiza la distribucidn de tres especies de Eunica (E. alcmena, E. olympias y E. malvina), agregando datos geograficos nuevos; de E. alcmena se confirma su existencia en la vertiente del Pacifico mexicano y para E. olympias se amplia la distribucion de una de sus subespecies, mientras que para E. malvina almae subsp. n. se describe una nueva subespecie del estado de Guerrero.

Abstract: The distribution of three species of Eunica is analyzed (E. alcmena, E. olympias and E. malvina), and new geographical data are presented. Eunica alcmena is confirmed from the Pacific slope in Mexico, and the known distribution of E. o. agustina is expanded. A new subspecies, E. malvina almae n. subsp., is described from Guerrero state.

Key words: Campeche, Central America, Chiapas, Colima, distribution, Eunica malvina almae n. subsp., Eurytelini, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mesoamerica, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Nayarit, Neotropical, Papilionidae, Sinaloa, South America, Tabasco, taxonomy, USA, Veracruz, West Indies, Yucatán.

Warren, A. D. 1996. Amblyscirtes patricias: description of the female and notes on its synonymy, behavior, habitat and distribution in Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 127-132.

Abstract: A careful examination of recently collected Amblyscirtes immaculatus Freeman specimens from western Mexico, coupled with an examination of the type specimen of Amblyscirtes patriciae (Bell) (especially its genitalic characters), from Guatemala, revealed that patriciae and immaculatus are undoubtedly the same species. Amblyscirtes immaculatus, therefore, becomes a new synonym of Amblyscirtes patriciae. The female of A. patriciae is described for the first time, from a single specimen from Michoacán, Mexico. Notes on the habitat, perching behavior, and distribution of A. patriciae in western Mexico are presented. The male genitalia of A. patriciae are compared to the genitalia of other similar, large Amblyscirtes from western Mexico: A. folia Godman and A. raphaeli Freeman.

Resumen: Un examen de ejemplares recien recolectados de Amblyscirtes immaculatus Freeman, con la comparacion del tipo de Amblyscirtes patriciae (Bell), especialmente sus genitales, revelaron que A. patriciae e A. immaculatus son la misma especie. For consiguiente Amblyscirtes immaculatus es un sinonimo nuevo de Amblyscirtes patriciae. Se describe la hembra de A. patriciae por primera vez, a partir de un solo ejemplar de Michoacán, Mexico. Se presentan notas sobre el habitat, la conducta de percha, y la distribution de A. patriciae del occidente de Mexico. Se comparan los genitales masculines de A. patriciae con los genitales de especies similares de Amblyscirtes de tamano grande del occidente de Mexico, A. folia Godman y A. raphaeli Freeman.

Key words: biogeography, Central America, Chiapas, Codatractus, Colima, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mesoamerica, Morelos, Neotropical, Oaxaca, Phanus, "Poanes," Puebla, taxonomy.

Austin, G. T., and T. C. Emmel. 1996. Nymphalidae of central Rondônia, Brazil: Melitaeinae, with descriptions of two new species. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 133-142.

Abstract: Fourteen species of Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) were recorded in the vicinity of Cacaulândia, in central Rondônia, Brazil. All are illustrated. Two of these are previously undescribed: Eresia fratema n. sp. and Castilia longala n. sp. Eresia plagiata extensa (Hall), n. comb., is transferred from E. nauplius. Comments on variation and phenology are given for all species. Figures of the genitalia are included for those taxa and sexes not previously illustrated.

Key words: Bolivia, Castilia, Castilia longala n. sp., C. Amer., Chlosyne, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Eresia, Eresia fraterna n. sp., genitalia, Guatemala, Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Mazia, Mexico, Neotropical, Ortilia, Peru, phenology, S. Amer., taxonomy, Tegosa, Telenassa, USA, variation.

Spitzer, K., and J. Jaros. 1996. Notes on Stichophthalma species in the Tam Dao Mountains of northern Vietnam (Lepidoptera: Amathusiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 143-145.

Abstract: The sympatric occurrence of Stichophthalma louisa Wood-Mason and S. howqua (Westwood) (Amathusiidae) has been investigated in the Tam Dao Mountains in northern Vietnam. Distribution and diagnosis of both species and their subspecies are discussed. The Tam Dao range seems to be the only locality of sympatric occurrence of both closely related species.

Key words: Asia, Burma, China, ecology, flight period, geographical races, India, Indochina, Laos, Nymphalidae, Oriental, rainforest, Thailand.

Heppner, J. B., and H.-Y. Wang. 1996. Lyssa zampa in Taiwan (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 146.

Abstract: The tropical swallowtail moth, Lyssa zampa (Butler) (Uraniidae), of the Philippines and other areas in Southeast Asia, and previously of doubtful occurrence in Taiwan, is recorded again from Taiwan. Notes are provided of other recent specimens from Taiwan.

Key words: Alcides, Australia, distribution, Euphorbiaceae, hostplants, Malaysia, Myrtaceae, Nepal, Oriental, Philippines, Southeast Asia.

Wolfe, K. V. 1996. Notes on the early stages of Zethera musides (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 147-150.

Abstract: The juvenile biology of laboratory-reared Zethera musides Semper is briefly presented from eggs laid by a confined female in Negros, Philippines. Oviposition was on a bamboo, with Arundinaria pygmaea (Poaceae) used as a substitute foodplant. The final-instar caterpillar is illustrated in color, the first time that an immature stage of any Zethera has been depicted, as are the nonconsumed exuviae and an unpinned voucher male. The larva and pupa are very similar to Penthema, with the same being true for at least one species of Neorina. To provide a basic comparison with Z. musides, larval and hostplant data gleaned from the available literature (virtually all of it in Chinese or Japanese) and other sources are referenced for Penthema formosanum (Rothschild), Penthema adeltna (Felder), and Neorina lowii (Doubleday), with preadult photographs of P. formosanum and N. lowii included as well.

Pagbubuod: Ang biyolohiya sa kamuraang gulang ng Zethera musides Semper na inalagaan sa laboratoryo ay bahagyang ipinakita sa pamamagitan ng iniitlog ng isang babaeng ispesimen na inobserbahan sa probinsiya ng Negros, Republika ng Pilipinas. Ang pangingitlog ay naganap sa isang kawayan, na kung saan ang inihaliling pagkain ng ispesimen ay Arundinaria pygmaea (Poaceae). Ang huling yugto ng uod ay ipmakikita dito nang buong kulay, ang kauna-unahang pagkakataon na maisasalarawan ang Zethera sa kamuraang yugto. Isinalarawan din ang hindi makakaing saklob ng uod at isang di-inaspiling lalakeng ispesimen. Ang uod at ang bahay uod ay may malaking pagkakatulad sa Penthema. Ang pagkakaparehong ito ay makikita din sa humigit kumulang isang uri ng Neorina. Upang makapagbigay ng batayang paghahalintulad sa Z. musides, ang mga datos tungkol sa uod at pagkain na makikita mula sa mga nakalathalang literatura (halos lahat nang ito ay nasa wikang Intsik o Hapon) at iba pang pinagsanggunian ay isinulat para sa Penthema formosanum (Rothschild), Penthema adelma (Felder), at Neorina lowii (Doubleday). Ang mga larawan ng P. formosanum at N. lowii bago sumapit sa kasapatang edad ay kabilang din.

Key words: Asia, bamboo, China, Gramineae, hostplants, immatures, Indonesia, Japan, larvae, life history, Malaysia, Neorina, Oriental, Penthema, Philippines, Poaceae, pupae, Sulawesi, Taiwan.

Clavijo-A., J. A., and E. Munroe. 1996. Una nueva especie de Diaphania de America tropical (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 151-153.

Abstract: Diaphania beckeri n. sp. from Central and South America is described. This species is closely related to D. exclusalis (Walker, 1865).

Resumen: Diaphania beckeri n. sp., es descrita de Centre y Sudamérica. Esta especie esta estrechamente relacionada con D. exclusalis (Walker, 1865).

Key words: Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Costa Rica, Cucurbitaceae, Diaphania beckeri n. sp., French Guiana, Guatemala, Neotropical, Peru, Pyraustinae, South America, taxonomy.

Emmel, T. C., and A. Sourakov. 1996. Book Review: Bibliography of Butterflies: An Annotated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skippers (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Volume 124, by Gerardo Lamas, Richard G. Robbins, and William D. Field. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 154.

Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia, edited by E. S. Nielsen, E. D. Edwards and T. V. Rangsi. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 154.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1996. Notes on the life history of Anetia jaegeri from Hispaniola (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 155-159.

Abstract: Early stages of the endemic Hispaniolan danaid butterfly Anetia jaegeri (Menetries) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), are described, and Asclepias nivea L. (Asclepiadaceae) is reported as being its food plant. Morphology of the last instar larva is examined for systematic implications, utilizing characters previously developed by Kitching (1985) for other danaines. Anetia jaegeri is found to be the most primitive of the 16 analyzed species of Danainae.

Key words: Asclepiadaceae, biology, Caribbean, cladistic analysis, Danaus, Dominican Republic, immature stages, Ithomiinae, larvae, life history, Lycorea, Methona, Neotropical, pupae, West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium, edited by lo Chou. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 160.

Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Butterflies (Yama-Kei Field Books, 11), by T. Inomata. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 160.

Heppner, J. B. 1996. Book Review: Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (15): Noctuid Moths and Allied Species from Neighboring Countries [3], by Hsiau-Yue Wang. Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 160.

Hall, S. K. 1996. Behaviour and natural history of Greta oto in captivity (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 7(2): 161-165.

Abstract: The life cycle of Greta oto (Hewitson) (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) and the suitability of various foodplants are described. Its behaviour in captiviy is discussed. The ability of this species and other butterflies to display apparently natural behaviour and breed in a small greenhouse emphasises the value of captive populations for behavioural research as well as for public exhibition.

Key words: Apocynaceae, breeding, Buddlejaceae, butterfly house, captivity, Central America, Coccidae, Compositae, courtship, egg, Homoptera, immature stages, larva, Neotropical, oviposition, Papilionidae, pupa, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae.

MAY 1997 Volume 8, Number 1

Shuey, J. A. 1997. An optimized portable bait trap for quantitative sampling of butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 1-4.

Abstract: A bait trap for butterflies which is optimized for butterfly capture, catch retention and durability is discussed. In addition, sources of between-trap sampling variation are discussed and strategies for reducing differences in trap performance under field conditions are presented.

Key words: bait trapping, biocriteria, Nymphalidae, Rhopalocera, sampling protocols, techniques.

Austin, G. T., Mielke, O. H., and S. R. Steinhauser. 1997. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Entheus Hübner, with descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 5-18.

Abstract: Six species of Entheus were found in central Rondônia, Brazil. Four are described as new species: Entheus eunyas n. sp. of the E. eumelus group, Entheus aureanota n. sp. of the E. priassus group, and Entheus aureolus n. sp. and Entheus bombus n. sp. of the E. gentlus group. A neotype is designated for Papilio gentius (Cramer, [1777]). Entheus ninyas is returned to a species level taxon. The status of Entheus telemus is elaborated.

Key words: Amazon, Apidae, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Entheus aureanota n. sp., Entheus bombus n. sp., Entheus aureolus n. sp., Entheus eunyas n. sp., Formicidae, Hymenoptera, Neotropical, Peru, South America, Surinam, Venezuela.

Austin, G. T. 1997. Two new Entheus from Ecuador and Peru (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 19-21.

Abstract: Two new species of Entheus are described: Entheus latebrosus n. sp., from Ecuador and Peru, and Entheus curvus n. sp., from Peru.

Key words: Amazon, Brazil, Entheus curvus n. sp., Entheus latebrosus n. sp., Neotropical, South America, taxonomy.

Austin, G. T. 1997. Hesperiidae of Rondônia Brazil: Eracon and a new related genus, with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 22-28.

Abstract: Five species of Eracon were encountered near Cacaulândia in central Rondônia, Brazil of which one, Eracon asymmetrica n. sp., is described as new. Cornuphallus n. gen. is proposed as a new genus for Eracon(?) problematica, and Cornuphallus albafascia n. sp. is described from central Rondônia. Male genitalia are illustrated for all species encountered (E. bitemata for the first time). Female genitalia of Eracon have not been illustrated heretofore and those of E. clinias, E. paulinus, and E. asymmetrica are shown.

Key words: Argentina, Cornuphallus n. gen., Cornuphallus albafascia n. sp., Eracon asymmetrica n. sp., genitalia, Guyana, Neotropical, Panama, Peru, South America, Surinam, taxonomy.

Freitas, A. V. L., Brown Jr., K. S., and L. D. Otero. 1997. Juvenile stages of Cybdelis, a key genus uniting the diverse branches of the Eurytelinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 29-34.

Abstract: The early stages of Cybdelis (Nymphalidae) combine characters from all lineages of the Eurytelinae. Eggs are laid singly on the underside of mature leaves of Tragia volubilis (Euphorbiaceae), a common foodplant in Biblidini, Eurytelini, Dynamme and some Epicaliini. Unlike most genera of Eurytelinae (except Dynamme, Sea and some Eunica), larvae do not construct frass chains. Some morphological features of the first and last instar larvae and pupa are like those of the Catagrammini, but the egg is very similar to those of the Epicaliini.

Key words: Antigonis, Archimestra, Batesia, behavior, Biblidini, Biblis, Bolboneura, Brazil, Burseraceae, Byblia, Catagrammini, Caryocaraceae, Catonephele, Cyclogramma, Diaethria, Dynamine, eggs, Epicaliini, Eunica, Euphorbiaceae, Eurytela, Guttiferae, Hamadryas, larvae, Lucinia, Mestra, Myscelia, Panacea, Paulogramma, Peria, Perisama, pupae, Pyrrhogyra, Rutaceae, Sallya, Sea, Venezuela, Vila.

Warren, A. D. 1997. A new species of Dalla from Guatemala (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 35-37.

Abstract: A new species of Dalla is described from a single male specimen from Olas de Moka, Sololá, Guatemala. Dalla freemani n. sp., is closely related to D. bubobon and D. steinhauseri, to which it is compared using wing and genitalic characters.

Resumen: Se describe una especie nueva de Dalla con un solo macho de Olas de Mola, Sololá, Guatemala. Esta especie nueva, Dalla freemani sp. n., es muy similar a D. bubobon y D. steinhauseri, con las cuales se compare, usando characteres de las alas y los genitales.

Key words: Central America, Dalla freemani n. sp., Heteropterinae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Michoacán, Neotropical, Sololá, taxonomy.

Worth, R. A., and R. J. Worth. 1997. A gynandromorph of Delias argentata from Irian Jaya (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 38.

Salazar, J. A. 1997. Una nueva subespecie de Antirrhea pterocopha para Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 39-40.

Abstract: Antirrhea pterocopha chocoensis n. subsp., is described from the Risaralda-Chocó border in western Colombia, thus also confirming the species as present in Colombia. It is distinguished from the nominate subspecies, with notes on distribution.

Key words: Antirrhea pterocopha chocoensis n. subsp., Central America, Costa Rica, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Panama, South America, taxonomy.

Pelz, V. 1997. Life history of Pedaliodes parepa from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 41-45.

Abstract: The immature stages of Pedaliodes parepa (Hewitson) are reported and figured in color for the first time from material collected at Cuenca in Ecuador. Larvae were reared in the laboratory to maturity on Poa annua (Linnaeus) (Poaceae).

Resumen: Se describe e ilustra a colores los estadíos inmaduros de Pedaliodes parepa (Hewitson) con material coleccionado en Cuenca, Ecuador. Las larvas fueron criadas en el laboratorio hasta madurez empleando Poa annua (Linnaeus)(Poaceae).

Key words: Andes, Azuay, biology, Bolivia, Central America, Cissia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Gramineae, immature stages, Neotropical, Peru, Poaceae, Pronophilini, South America, Venezuela.

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 1997. Book Review: The Butterflies of Venezuela. Part 1: Nymphalidae I (Limenitidinae, Apaturinae, Charaxinae); A Comprehensive Guide to the Identification of Adult Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae, by Andrew F. E. Neild. Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 46.

Gaal, S., Keber, A., and M. Lödl. 1997. Holzinger Heliconius Collection to Museum of Natural History, Vienna, Austria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(1): 47-48.

Abstract: The Heliconius Collection of Ruth and Helmuth Holzinger was donated to the Museum of Natural History, Vienna, in 1996. The collection consists of about 2,900 specimens, including many types. It was integrated into the main collection of the Museum, giving an overall total holding of about 7,000 specimens in the genus.

Key words: Austria, collections, museums, Neotropical, South America.

NOVEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Number 2

Epstein, M. E. 1997. Biology of Dalcerides ingenita (Lepidoptera: Dalceridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 49-59.

Abstract: Observations on the biology of Dalcerides ingenita (H. Edwards) are documented, many for the first time, with photographs and images captured from video. Dalcerid larvae have a dorsum covered with gelatinous warts. It is reported here that the head, prothorax, ventrum and anal segment of larval dalcerids are molted apart from the dorsum of the remaining thorax and abdomen. The gelatinous warts are irregularly molted and are believed to form as a result of secretions beneath old layers of integument. Time-lapse photography of cocoon construction indicates that the warts are sloughed off and fed on by the prepupa. Images of other behaviors include larval locomotion and use of the spinneret, cannibalism of unhatched larvae by newly hatched siblings, and adult emergence and copulation.

Key words: Acraga, Aididae, Arizona, Brazil, Colombia, Diptera, eggs, Epipyropidae, Ericaceae, Fagaceae, Fulgoroidea, Homoptera, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, larvae, larval behavior, life history, Limacodidae, Megalopygidae, Mexico, Nearctic, Neotropical, parasites, Prolimacodes, pupae, South America, Tachinidae, Texas, USA, Zygaenidae.

Easton, E. R., and W.-W. Pun. 1997. New records of butterflies from Macau, Southeast China (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 60-66.

Abstract: Records of 74 species of butterflies are listed for the Portuguese territory of Macau, of which 57 are new records.

Key words: Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amathusiidae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asia, Capparidaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Cruciferae, Cycadaceae, Danaidae, distribution, Euphorbiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Gramineae, Hesperiidae, hostplants, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Loranthaceae, Lycaenidae, Magnoliaceae, Moraceae, Musaceae, Myrsinaceae, Nymphalidae, Oriental, Oxalidaceae, Palmae, Papilionidae, Papilionoidea, Pieridae, Rhopalocera, Riodinidae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sabiaceae, Salicaceae, Santalaceae, Satyridae, Scrophulariaceae, Smilacaceae, Southeast Asia, Sterculiaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae, Zingiberaceae.

Wolfe, K. L., and F. Bénéluz. 1997. Copiopteryx jehovah and its immature stages (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Arsenurinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 67-70.

Abstract: The adult and immature stages of Copiopteryx jehovah are described and illustrated in color.Larvae fed upon Chrysophyllum caimito and Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae).

Resume: Description et illustration en coulour, de l'oef à l'adulte, de Copiopteryx jehovah. Elevage sur Chrysophyllum caimito et Manilkara zapota.

Resumen: Se describen e ilustran a color los adultos y los estadios inmaduros de Copiopteryx jehovah. Las larvas se alimentaron de Chrysophyllum caimito y Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae).

Key words: Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, eggs, Guatemala, hostplants, larvae, larval behavior, Mexico, Neotropical, pupae, Sapotaceae, South America.

Amarillo-S., A. R., and K. L. Wolfe. 1997. Descripción del ciclo de vida y ampliación de ambito de Rothschildia zacateca (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 71-74.

Resumen: Se ilustran en color los adultos y estadios inmaduros de Rothschildia zacateca (Westwood) y se describen los inmaduros por primera vez. Se amplia su rango de distribución restringido hasta recientemente a la localidad típica. Se consiguieron huevos de una hembra capturada y las orugas fueron criadas en el laboratorio sobre Prunus serotina (Rosaceae), atravesando por cinco estadios.

Abstract: The adult and immature stages of Rothschildia zacateca (Westwood) are illustrated in color, and the immature stages are described for the first time. The known range of distribution of the species is increased from that until recently restricted to the type locality. Eggs were gathered from a captured female and caterpillars were reared in the laboratory on Prunus serotina (Rosaceae). Larvae pass through five instars.

Key words: Colombia, immature stages, larvae, Neotropical, Rosaceae, Saturniidae, South America, Styracaceae.

Constantino, L. M. 1997. Natural history, immature stages and hostplants of Morpho amathonte from western Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 75-80.

Abstract: The early stages, natural history and a new larval food plant are reported for Morpho amathonte Deyrolle from the Choco region in western Colombia. The morphology of the immature stages of M. amathonte amathonte Deyrolle is compared with M. amathonte centralis Staudinger and M. cypris bugaba from Central America. A new secretory gland and two sclerotized grooming horn-like protuberances projecting backwards on the epicranium are reported for M. amathonte, M. sulkowskyi and M. patroclus from Colombia. The larval food plant of M. amathonte amathonte in western Colombia is Cespedesia macrophylla (Ochnaceae), a new hostplant family record for Morphinac. A summary of records for caterpillar hostplants in the genus Morpho is provided.

Key words: Bignoniaceae, biology, Brazil, Central America, Choco, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, egg, El Salvador, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Gramineae, Guttiferae, Lauraceae, larvae, Leguminosae, life history, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Morpho, Neotropical, Nicaragua, Ochnaceae, Panama, Poaceae, pupae, Quiinaceae, Sapindaceae, South America, Tiliaceae, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Miller, J. S., Janzen, D. H., and J. G. Franclemont. 1997. New species of Euhapigiodes, new genus, and Hapigiodes in Hapigiini, new tribe, from Costa Rica, with notes on their life history and immatures (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 81-99.

Abstract: Two new species of Notodontidae from the lowland dry forests of the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica are described: Hapigiodes sigifredomarini n. sp. and Euhapigiodes hallwachsae n. sp. in Euhapigiodes, n. gen. The larvae of both feed on Lonchocarpus (Fabaceae). Pseudhapigia misericordia Dyar is moved to Hapigiodes as a new combination. Hapigiodes and Euhapigiodes are relatives of Hapigia, and would previously have been placed in the tribe Hemiceratini of Forbes, but comparison of adults and larvae of Hapigiodes, Euhapigiodes and Hapigia with Hemiceras yields the result that the Hemiceratini is polyphyletic. Thus, Hapigiini is erected as a new tribe of 9 genera, provisionally placed in the notodontid subfamily Heterocampinae. The larvae and adults of 8 hapigiine species from Costa Rica are figured, and their hostplants (all Fabaceae) are listed. These are the first life histories and food plants described for the Hapigiini.

Key words: Anita, Antaea, biology, Canodia, Central America, Chliara, Colax, distribution, Dudusinae, eggs, Euhapigiodes hallwachsae n. sp., Fabaceae, Hapigia, Hapigiodes sigifredomarini n. sp., Hemiceras, Hemiceratini, Heterocampinae, immatures, larvae, Leguminosae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Nicaragua, Oriental, Panama, Phalera, Phalerinae, Procolax, Pseudhapigia, pupae, Rhapigia, South America, systematics.

Ross, G. N. 1997. World's Most Beautiful Lepidopteran? Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 100.

Hall, J. P. W., and G. T. Austin. 1997. Riodinidae of Rondônia, Brazil: a new species of Theope (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 101-102.

Abstract: A new riodinid, Theope turneri n. sp., is described from the vicinity of Cacaulândia, Rondônia, Brazil, and a list of Theope species collected in the area to date is presented.

Key words: Amazon, Brazil, diversity, Ecuador, Neotropical, South America, taxonomy, Theope turneri n. sp.

Beccaloni, G. W. 1997. Ecology, natural history and behaviour of Ithomiine butterflies and their mimics in Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 103-124.

Abstract: The ithomiine butterfly species (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) which occur at Jatun Sacha Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador were found to participate in eight discrete mimicry complexes. These complexes involve a total of 124 insect species: 55 ithomiine species, 34 species which belong to other butterfly families or subfamilies, 34 moth species, and 1 species of damselfly. All species are illustrated and identified, and aspects of their behaviour are discussed. Literature on the chemical defences of the species is reviewed and a study of their ultraviolet reflectance patterns is presented. Data from a mark-release-recapture study show that the majority of individuals in the mimicry complexes studied were ithomiines. Hypotheses to explain polymorphism in Batesian and Müllerian mimics are discussed, in view of the finding that seven species of ithomiines, five other butterfly species, and the single damselfly species were polymorphic at Jatun Sacha.

Key words: Amazon, Apocynaceae, Arctiidae, Argentina, Batesian mimicry, Boraginaceae, Brazil, Charaxinae, chemical defences, Compositae, Costa Rica, Ctenuchinae, damselflies, Dioptidae, Dircennini, Dismorphiinae, Ennominae, Geometridae, Hedylidae, Heliconiinae, Hesperiidae, Ithomiinae, Jamaica, Lycaenidae, Mechanitini, Mexico, mimicry complexes, moths, Müllerian mimicry, Neotropical, Notodontidae, Nymphalidae, Odonata, Papilionidae, Papilioninae, Pericopinae, Peru, Pieridae, Pierinae, polymorphism, Polythoridae, Pyralidae, Pyrginae, Riodininae, Solanaceae, South America, Spilomelinae, Tithoreini, ultraviolet patterns, unpalatability, Venezuela, Zygoptera.

Heppner, J. B. 1997. Book Review: Las Mariposas de Chile - The Butterflies of Chile, by L. E. Pena-G. and A. J. Ugarte-P. Tropical Lepidoptera 8(2): 125.

JUNE 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 1

Hoy, M. A., and R. Nguyen. 1997. Classical biological control of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): theory, practice, art and science. Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 1): 1-19.

DECEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 2

Balcázar-Lara, M. A., and K. L. Wolfe. 1997. Cladistics of the Ceratocampinae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 2): 1-53.

DECEMBER 1997 Volume 8, Supplement 3

Emmel, T. C., and T. B. Larsen. 1997. Butterfly diversity in Ghana, West Africa. Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 1-13.

Abstract: The country of Ghana in West Africa supports a fauna of 890 butterfly species (out of 1,000 known from west of the Dahomey Gap). The results of an August 1996 expedition through Ghana to its principal parks and reserves are reported. The total number of species encountered by the expedition was 425, or 46% of the total Ghana fauna. The true total is probably closer to 450, or half of the known fauna, and a number of new records and interesting rare species were taken. A complete list of the butterfly fauna of Ghana is given, including annotations as to locality records from the 1996 expedition.

Key words: Africa, Afrotropical, biodiversity, biogeography, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, conservation, Dahomey, Ethiopian, Gabon, Guinea, Hesperiidae, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lycaenidae, Nigeria, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Papilionoidea, Pieridae, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Upper Volta, West Africa, Zaire.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1997. Bicyclus and Hallelesis: their immature stages and taxonomic relationships (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 14-22.

Abstract: Immature stages of the satyrine butterflies Bicyclus safitza (Westwood), B. madetes (Hewitson), B. vulgaris (Butler), B. sanaos (Hewitson), B. sandace (Hewitson), and Hallelesis halyma (Fabricius), from Ghana, West Africa, are illustrated and compared. The divergence of the genus Hallelesis from members of Bicyclus, to which it is closely related, is supported by the appearance of its immatures. Comparison of the morphology of the above species with another member of the tribe Mycalesini (the genus Henotesia), as well as with African members of tribes Ypthimini and Maelanitini, shows an increase in size of the third stemmata from primitive to advanced Satyrinae. Contrary to what is widely statedin the literature, some satyrine larvae do not have enlarged third stemmata.

Key words: Africa, Apaturinae, Calisto, Cercyonis, eggs, Ethiopian, Euptychia, Ghana, hostplants, Henotesia, larvae, Maniolini, Melanitini, Melanitis, morphology, Mycalesini, Neotropical, New World, pupae, South Africa, Strabena, taxonomy, Ypthima, Zingiberaceae.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1997. Ypthima and Ypthimomorpha: their immature stages and taxonomic relationships (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 23-28.

Abstract: Immature stages of the satyrine butterflies Ypthima doleta Kirby, Ypthima condamini nigeriae Kielland, and Ypthimomorpha itonia Hewitson from Ghana, West Africa, are illustrated and compared. The divergence of Ypthimomorpha itonia from these members of Ypthima Hübner, is supported by the appearance of its immatures. The relatedness of these African species to Oriental members of Ypthima is then discussed. Ypthimomorpha is found to be closer morphologically to the Oriental cluster. It is proposed that Ypthimomorpha or its immediate ancestor represent an evolutionary bridge between Oriental and African groups of Ypthima, The immature stages of these latter two groups arc different when preserved material from Africa is compared with illustrations of immatures of the four Ypthima species from Taiwan and Japan, as well as two species from Nepal (Ypthima avanta and Y. sakra). Therefore, the recognition of the monotypic genus Ypthimomorpha without simultaneous creation of a new generic name for the African Ypthima group is not defensible taxonomically.

Key words: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Colorado, eggs, Ethiopian, evolution, Ghana, hostplants, Japan, larvae, Madagascar, Nepal, Oriental, pupae, South Africa, Taiwan, Ypthimiini.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1997. Notes on life histories of Oboronia liberiana and Oboronia ornata (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 29-31.

Abstract: Females of two species of "White Blues," Oboronia ornaia (Mabille) and Oboronia liberiana Stempffer, were observed to oviposit on the plants of Costus dubius and Costus afer (Costaceae), respectively, in the rain forests of Ghana, West Africa. The immature stages of these butterflies are illustrated and compared. Myrmecophily of the larvae is noted.

Key words: Africa, ants, Costaceae, eggs, Formicidae, Ghana, hostplants, Hymenoptera, larvae, Leptosia, Lycaenidae, myrmecophily, Pieridae, Polyommatini, pupae.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1997. Notes on life histories of Pyrrhochalcia iphis and Pardaleodes tibullus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 32.

Abstract: The immature stages of two skippers, Pyrrhochalcia iphis (Drury) and Pardaleodes tibullus (Fabricius) from Ghana, West Africa, are illustrated. Their respective host plants, Psychotria calva (Rubiaceae) and Pennisetum sp. (Poaceae), are reported. The aposematism of the larval coloration in P. iphis is supported by the toxicity of its known host plant species.

Key words: Africa, Anacardiaceae, Ethiopian, Ghana, Gramineae, hostplant, larvae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 1997. Mating habits in the genus Acraea, with a possible explanation for monosexual populations (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Acraeinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 8(Suppl. 3): 33-35.

Abstract: Mating Acraea butterflies have been observed with rough "take-down" behavior by males and opposite dorso-ventral orientation of male and female abdomens, supporting theories of authors that males dominate copulation behavior without any pre-copulatory ritual, followed by use of a sphragis to protect their sperm investment in each female. The observations support the view that harassment of mated females may be a selective force which has led to genetic factors causing female-dominant populations in some Acraea species

Key words: Africa, Acraea, behavior, Coleoptera, Ethiopian, Ghana, Kenya, Lycaenidae, mating behavior, Meleageria, population ecology, Russia.

MAY 1998 Volume 9, Number 1

Hall, S. K., and M. Lightowler. 1998. Notes on the captive rearing of Pharmacophagus antenor from Madagascar (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Troidini). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 1-3.

Abstract: The partial life-history of Pharmacophagus anterior is described and its adult behaviour in captivity is discussed. Photographs of the living egg, first and second instar larvae, and pupa are published for the first time. Aristolochia elegans was found to be an unsuitable foodplant, being lethal to the first and second instar larvae.

Key words: Africa, Aristolochiaceae, Atrophaneura, biology, birdwings, butterfly houses, eggs, Ethiopian, hostplants, immatures, larvae, Ornithoptera, Pachliopta, Papilionoidea, Parides, pupae,Trogonoptera, Troides.

Heppner, J. B., and H.-Y. Wang. 1998. Coryptilum moths in Southeast Asia (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 4.

Abstract: The Oriental tropical moth genus, Coryptilum (Tineidae), includes some of the most colorful tineid moths in the world. Two of the species are illustrated: one from Malaysia and one from Taiwan. Other species of the genus occur from India to the Solomon Islands. Species of the genus are day-flying, but other biological data remains unknown.

Key words: behavior, distribution. Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Oriental, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Tineinae.

Austin, G. T., and K. Johnson. 1998. Theclinae of Rondônia, Brazil: Olynthus, with descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 5-13.

Abstract: Fourteen species of Olynthus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were encountered near Cacaulândia in central Rondônia, Brazil. Four of these O. essus, O. punctum, O. fancia, and O. avoca represent known species; ten, O. negrus, O. lividus, O. fulvoventris, O. ochraventris, O. occultus, O. pollens, O. pressus, O. purpuratus, O. ruberangulus, and O. albosignum, are described as new species. Distinctive genitalia readily separate species showing general external similarity. These species fly in the late dry and early wet seasons and there are marked annual differences in abundance.

Key words: Amazon, biodiversity, Eumaeini, French Guiana, Goias, Mato Grosso, Neotropical, Olynthus albosignum n. sp., Olynthus fulvoventris n. sp., Olynthus lividus n. sp., Olynthus negrus n. sp., Olynthus occultus n. sp., Olynthus ochraventris n. sp., Olynthus pattens n. sp., Olynthus pressus n. sp., Olynthus purpuratus n. sp., Olynthus ruberangulus n. sp., Peru, phenology, South America, Surinam, taxonomy.

Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies. Volume 1, by Sugeru Igarashi and Haruo Fukuda. Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 14.

Naumann, S. 1998. Description of the female of Saturnia cameronensis from West Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 15-17.

Abstract: The hitherto unknown female of Saturnia cameronensis Lemaire, 1979 is described and figured in color. It is compared with females of the closely related S. pyretorum Westwood, and S. pinratanai Lampe. The female of S. cameronensis differs clearly from those two species by its larger size, larger ocelli, the red inner portion of the antemedian line of the forewing, and the weakly shaded postmedian band of the hindwing; these features are shared with the male. The tip of the female abdomen is covered by a mass of grayish brown scales, typical for this species complex.

Zusammenfassung: Das noch immer unbekannte Weibchen von Saturnia cameronensis wird beschrieben und abgebildet. Es wird verglichen mit Weibchen der nahe verwandten S. pyretorum und S. pinratanai; diese drei Arten werden von Nässig (1994) innerhalb der Gattung Saturnia allesamt im Subgenus Saturnia und nicht mehr im Subgenus Eriogyna Jordan, 1913 geführt. Eine Revision dieses Komplexes ist von Naumann in Vorbereitung. Das Weibchen von S. cameronensis unterscheidet sich von den genannten anderen Arten deutlich durch die grossere Spannweite, die grösseren Ocellen, den breiten Rotanteil des Antemedianbandes im Vorderflügel sowie den nur sehr dezent verdunkelten Postmedianbereich des Hinterflügels. Diese Merkmale stimmen mit dem Männchen sehr gut überein. Wie bei beiden anderen Arten ist das Ende des Abdomens stark mit dunkelgraubrauner Afterwolle besetzt.

Key words: Asia, Eriogyna, Oriental, taxonomy, West Malaysia.

Emmel. T. C. 1998. Book Review: Living Butterflies of Southern Africa: Biology, Ecology, and Conservation. Volume 1. Hesperiidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae of South Africa, by Graham A. Henning, Stephen F. Henning, John G. Joannou, and Stephen E. Woodhall. Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 18.

Beutelspacher-Baigts, C. R., and M. Balcázar-Lara. 1998. Saturniidae of "Los Altos de Chiapas," México (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 19-22.

Abstract: A faunal study for the family Saturniidae, of "Rancho Nuevo", San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Móxico is presented in this paper. Thirteen species of nine genera were found in the area. The fauna is compared with those of other Mexican localities in published papers.

Resumen: Se estudiaron las mariposas de la familia Saturniidae, de "Rancho Nuevo", San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México, encontrándose 13 especies repartidas en nueve géneros. Se compara esta fauna, con otras del país y se señalan los Indices de Similitud.

Key words: Arsenurinae, biodiversity, Central America, Ceratocampinae, distribution, fauna, Hemileucinae, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Saturniinae, zoogeography.

Eitschberger, U., and G. Brehm. 1998. Bildliche Darstellung der Präimaginalstadien von Actias selene aus Nord-Indien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 23-27.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Entwicklungsstadien einer Population von Actias selene selene (Hübner) aus Nordindien werden durch die Aquarellbilder von Gunnar Brehm naturgetreu abgebildet. Mit Hilfe des Rasterelektronenmikroskopes (REM) werden die Mikrofeinstrukturen des Eis und der Stigmen von der L5-Raupe sowie der Puppe dargestellt.

Abstract: The early stages of Actias selene selene (Hübner), from northern India, are figured by water-color paintings made by Gunnar Brehm. The structure of the egg, as well as of the spiracles of the 5th instar larva and the pupa, are shown via SEM micrographs.

Key words: Asia, eggs, Ericaceae, hostplant, immatures, India, larvae, morphology, Oriental, pupae.

Onore, G., and V. Cevallos. 1998. Massive movement of Panoquina sylvicola in southern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 28.

Abstract: A large mass of Panoquina sylvicola (Herrich-Schaffer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), accompanied by limited numbers of Siproeta epaphus Latreille (Nymphalidae) and an unidentified species of Aeshnidae dragonfly (Oodnata), were observed moving west to east near Loja, Ecuador, on 18 April 1992. Approximately 100-150 butterflies per minute were counted over a road at 3100m, flying about 18 km per hour against a wind speed of 12 km per hour.

Key words: Aeshnidae, behavior, biology, migration, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Odonata, Siproeta, South America, Urbanus.

Beéche, M. A., and L. E. Parra. 1998. New Ithutomus species from Chile (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 29-30.

Abstract: A new species of microlepidoptera, Ithutomus valdivianus n. sp., from Chile, is described. Its host and its diagnostic characters are indicated.

Resumen: Se describe a Ithutomus valdivianus sp. nov. de microlepidóptero de Chile; se señala su hospedero y se indican los caracteres diagnósticos para la identificatión de las especies del género Ithutomus.

Key words: biology, hostplants, immature stages, Ithutomus valdivianus n. sp., larvae, Neotropical, South America, Winteraceae.

Landry, B., and J.-F. Landry. 1998. Yponomeutidae of the Galapagos Islands, with description of a new species of Prays (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 31-40.

Abstract: The Yponomeutoid fauna of the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) comprises two species, Prays galapagosella n. sp. (Plutellidae: Praydiane) and Atteva hysgmiella (Wallengren, 1861) (Yponomeutidae: Attevinae). Atteva monerythra Meyrick, 1926, is synonymized with A. hysgmiella. Atteva hysginiella was reared from Castela galapageia Hooker f. (Simaroubaceae); its genitalia and immature stages are described and illustrated.

Key words: Amblothridia, Araliaceae, Atemelia, Atteva, Attevidae, Attevinae, biodiversity, Coleophoridae, Colombia, Cydosia, Depressariidae, Depressariinae, Ecuador, Elachistidae, Eucatagma, Gelechiidae, Gelechioidea, Neotropical, Orinympha, Pepilla, Plutella, Plutellidae, Praydinae, Prays galapagosella n. sp., Pseudorinympha, Simaroubaceae, South America, taxonomy, Tortricidae.

Warren, A. D. 1998. A new species of Amblyscirtes from montane western Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(1): 41-44.

Abstract: Amblyscirtes novimmaculatus n. sp. is described from thirteen males from mountainous parts of Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, and Oacaxa states, Mexico. This new species is most similar to A. anubis, and has only been found between 1400 and 1800 m. elevation, at the peak of the localrainy season. This species is compared to A. anubis, A. patriciae, and A. raphaeli, and male genitalia of A. anubis and A. raphaeli are illustrated and compared to that of A. novimmaculatus.

Resumen: Se describe Amblyscirtes novimmaculatus sp. n. a partir de 13 machos provenientes de localidades montañosas en los estados Mexicanos de Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero y Oaxaca. Esta especie nueva solo se encuentra entre 1400 y 1800 msnm, y vuela durante la epoca de lluvias más intensivas en la región. Se discute sobre la diferenciación de la especie nueva, A. anubis, A. patriciae y A. raphaeli, y se comparan y presentan ilustraciones de los genitales masculines de A. anubis, A. raphaeli, y la especie nueva.

Key words: Amblyscirtes novimmaculatus n. sp., biogeography, Central America, Colima, Guatemala, Ithomiinae, Mesoamerica, Moeris, Morelos, Neotropical, Puebla, Satyrinae, taxonomy.

NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Number 2

Johnson, K., and S. B. Hedge. 1998. Three new species of Calisto from southwestern Haiti (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 45-53.

Abstract: Three new species of Calisto are described from the vicinity of remnant cloud forest in the Pare Nacional Pic Macaya located in the Massif de la Hotte near the distal end of the Tiburon Peninsula in southwestern Haiti: C. pauli n. sp., C. woodsi n. sp., and C. thomasi n. sp. The three taxa are of uncertain affinity in the genus, perhaps reflecting the isolated location of the type locality, and bring to five the number of Calisto taxa reported as endemic to this now extensively deforested region. Two species, C. pauli and C. woodsi, exhibit a distinctive genital feature also known in two common Cuban Calisto, C. herophile (Hübner) and C. sibylla (Fabricius), whose morphologies are described and illustrated for the first time. To further distinguish C. pauli, a neotype male of Satyrus hysius Godart is designated, and companion females described. Satyrus hysius has previously been ambiguous, described without illustration from its indistinctive female which resembles several other Calisto species, including C. pauli.

Key words: Antilles, Calisto pauli n. sp., Calisto thomasi n. sp., Calisto woodsi n. sp., Caribbean, Cuba, Dominican Republic, endemism, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Neotropical, taxonomy, West Indies.

Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: Mariposas del Ecuador. Vol. 1. Géneros, by Francisco Piñas-Rubio, S.J., and Iván Manzano-Pesántez. Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 54.

Heppner, J. B. 1998. Book Review: Butterflies of Hong Kong, by Paul Lau. Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 54.

Brown, J. W. 1998. A new species of Pseudocomotis from Costa Rica, including the first reported female of the genus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Chlidanotinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 55-57.

AbSTRACT: Pseudocomotis nortena n. sp., is described and illustrated from Costa Rica, bringing to 6 the number of described species in the genus. The new species is the only member of the genus documented from Central America thus far: Pseudocomotis Brown previously was known from Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. A female of the genus is described and illustrated for the first time. The unusual shape of the papillae anales are reminiscent of Monortha Razowski and some species of Auratonota Razowski; the short, stout ductus bursa is unique among Neotropical members of the tribe. Pseudocomotis appears to represent the sister group to Monortha; the monophyly of the genus is demonstrated convincingly by several characters of the male and female genitalia.

Key words: Auratonota, biodiversity, Central America, Chlidanotini, Cnephasia, Colombia, Ecuador, Eulia, Mesoamerica, Monortha, Neotropical, Pseudocomotis nortena n. sp., systematics, taxonomy, Venezuela.

Kuhn, J. J. 1998. Ant tending of Arhopala larvae in Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 58.

Lemaire, C., and C. G. C. Mielke. 1998. A new Automerella from southeastern Brazil (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 59-60.

Abstract: Automerella miersi Lemaire & C. Mielke, n. sp., is described from the state of Santa Catarina in southeastern Brazil. It is known only from the female which differs from its closest relative, Automerella flexuosa (R. Felder and Rogenhofer) by its much smaller size and the hypertrophy of the discal spot of the forewing. The female holotype is illustrated in color, female genitalia are figured and taxonomic relationship is discussed.

Resume: Automerella miersi Lemaire et C. Mielke sp. n. est décrit de 1'état de Santa Catarina au sud-est du Brésil. La femelle, seule connue, diffère de celle de 1'espèce la plus proche, Automerella flexuosa (R. Felder et Rogenhofer) par sa taille très inférieure et par 1'hypertrophie de la tache discocellulaire des ailes antérieures. L'holotype femelle est illustré en couleurs et 1'armure génitale femelle est figurée; la position taxonomique de 1'espèce nouvelle est indiquée.

Key words: Argentina, Automerella miersi n. sp., Automeris, distribution, genitalia, Hyperchiria, Molippa, Neotropical, South America, taxonomy.

Eitschberger, U. 1998. Zwei Neue Arten der Schwärmergattung Euryglottis (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 61-75.

Abstract: Two new sphingid species are described: Euryglottis oliver sp. nov., from Peru, and Euryglottis johannes sp. nov. from Venezuela. This increases the number of species of the genus Euryglottis Boisduval, [1875], from five (Carcasson and Heppner, 1996) to seven. Macroscopically recognizable differences between all these species are worked out and photomicrographs of the genitalia of five species placed at our disposal (E. aper Walker, E. dognini Rothschild, E. guttiventris Rothschild & Jordan, E. oliver sp. nov., and E. johannes sp. nov.) are shown. In addition, egg shell structures of three species (E. oliver sp. nov., E. johannes sp. nov. and E. aper) are illustrated by scanning electron micrographs.

Zusammenfassung: Zwei neue Sphingidae-Arten, Euryglottis oliver sp. nov. aus Peru und Euryglottis johannes sp. nov. aus Venezuela, werden beschrieben. Damit erhöht sich die Zahl der Arten in der Gattung Euryglottis Boisduval, [1875] von bisher fünf (Carcasson and Heppner, 1996) auf sieben. Die Unterschiede aller behandelten Arten werden herausgestellt. Die Genitalstrukturen von fünf Arten sowie die Eisturkturen von drei Arten werden bildlich dargestellt und deren Unterschiede im Text beschrieben.

Key words: Apurimac, Aragua, Bignoniaceae, biology, Bolivia, Cuzco, Ecuador, eggs, Euryglottis johannes n. sp., Euryglottis oliver n. sp., hostplants, immatures, morphology, Napo, Neotropical, Peru, South America, Tachira, taxonomy, Venezuela.

Emmel, T. C. 1998. Book Review: The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea: their Systematics and Biology, by Michael Parsons. Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 76.

Rodríquez, M. A., Angulo, A. O., and R. Badilla. 1998. Una nueva especie de Euxoamorpha de la subregión Andino-Patagonica, con algunos aspectos de su biología (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(2): 77-85.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie del género Euxoamorpha Franclemont, 1950, Euxoamorpha ceciliae n. sp., desde Talca, Chile a una altura de aproximadamente 2100m. Se incluye un comentario acerca de la afinidad de parentesco con las otras cinco especies, se obtiene un cladograma de relaciones filogenéticas. Se presenta la clave definitiva para las especies (modificada de Angulo y Olivares, 1991). Se entrega una descripción y aspectos de la biología, de los estados inmaduros obtenidos en laboratorio (huevo, larva) de Euxoamorpha ceciliae n. sp., como contributión al conocimiento del género.

Abstract: A new species of Euxoamorpha Franclemont, 1950, genus, Euxoamorpha ceciliae n. sp., is described from Talca, Chile at an elevation of ca. 2100m. Some accounts about of akin to the other five species is included, and then a cladogram of phylogenetical relationships is obtained. Key to the species (modified from Angulo and Olivares, 1991) is presented. A description and some aspects of the biology of the immature stages obtained in laboratory (egg and larvae) of Euxoamorpha ceciliae n. sp. as a contribution to the knowledge of the genus are given.

Key words: Andes, Argentina, biology, Capitarsia, chaetotaxy, Chile, Chiloe, Ecuador, egg, Euxoamorpha ceciliae n.sp., immatures, larva, Mendoza, Neotropical, Patagonia, Peridroma, South America, systematics, Talca.

NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Supplement 1

Hall, J. P. W. 1998. A review of the genus Sarota (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 1): 1-21.

Abstract: A review of the genus Sarota Westwood, 1851, is presented which includes a brief overview of the biology, biogeography and taxonomic history of its component species, a key to the identification of adults, illustrations of all known species and subspecies (including many type specimens) with accompanying taxonomic notes and the descriptions of five new species and two new subspecies: Sarota chloropunctata n. sp., Sarota chocoensis n. sp., Sarota completa n. sp., Sarota harveyin. sp., Sarota willmotti n. sp., Sarota estrada sabanilla n. ssp., and Sarota gametia alba n. ssp.. Twenty species are recognised. Neotypes are designated for Sarota acantus (Stoll, 1782) and Sarota gyas (Cramer, 1775). The tribe Sarotini (= Charitini Auctt.) is synonymised with the tribe Helicopini (n. syn.), and a cladogram based on a small character matrix is used to illustrate generic relationships within the more inclusive, newly conceived tribe.

Key words: Amazon, Anteros, Araceae, Argentina, behavior, biogeography, Bolivia, Brazil, Callistium, Central America, Charts, Charitini, Charmona, Choco, cladistics, Colombia, Comphotis, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ernests, Fabaceae, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Helicopini, Helicopis, Honduras, hostplants, Hypochrysops, Lejuniaceae, Lycaenidae, Mexico, Neotropical, Nymphidium, Ourocnemis, Panama, Peru, Phaenochitonia, pheromones, Sarota chloropunctata n. sp., Sarota chocoensis n. sp., Sarota completa n. sp., Sarota harveyi n. sp., Sarota willmotti n. sp., Sarota estrada sabanilla n. ssp., Sarota gametia alba n. ssp., Sarotini, South America, Sterculiaceae, Surinam, taxonomy, Theope, Tiliaceae, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1998. Three new species of Riodinini from the cloud forests of Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 1): 22-26.

Abstract: Three new species of the tribe Riodinini, in the genera Baeotis Hübner, [1819] (Baeotis attali n. sp.), Lasaia Bates, 1868 (Lasaia cutisca n. sp.), and Chalodeta Stichel, 1910 (Chalodeta pescada n. sp.), are described from east Andean cloud forest habitats in Ecuador. Comparative taxa are also illustrated, including Baeotis kadenii (C. & R. Felder, 1861) (n. comb.), which is transferred from Imelda Hewitson, 1870, Lasaia incoides Schaus, 1902 (n. comb.), which is transferred from Exoplisia Godman & Salvin, 1886, and Lasaia scotina Stichel, 1910, which is synonymised with Lasaia incoides (n. syn.).

Key words: Argentina, Baeotis attali n. sp., bait trapping, behavior, Bolivia, Brazil, Chalodeta pescada n. sp., Colombia, Exoplisia, Imelda, Lasaia cutisca n. sp., Neotropical, Paraguay, Peru, South America, taxonomy, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 1998. Nine new species and one new subspecies of Euselasia from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 1): 27-35.

Abstract: Nine new species and one new subspecies in the euselasiine genus Euselasia Hübner, [1819] (Euselasia andreae n. sp., Euselasia cyanofusa n. sp., Euselasia hieronymi bianala n. ssp., Euselasia illarina n. sp., Euselasia jigginsi n. sp., Euselasia mapatayna n. sp., Euselasia nauca n. sp., Euselasia palla n. sp., Euselasia pillaca n. sp., and Euselasia thaumata n. sp.), are described from Ecuador, with brief notes on their habitats and behavior.

Key words: behavior, Brazil, Central America, Charis, cloud forest, conservation, Costa Rica, deforestation, Diaethria, Dynamine, endemism, Eueides, Eresia, Euptychia, Euselasia andreae n. sp. Euselasia cyanofusa n. sp., Euselasia hieronymi bianala n. ssp., Euselasia illarina n. sp., Euselasia jigginsi n. sp., Euselasia mapatayna n. sp., Euselasia nauca n. sp., Euselasia palla n. sp., Euselasia pillaca n. sp., Euselasia thaumata n. sp., Euselasiinae, Hades, Hamadryas, Hyposcada, Ithomeis, Melanis, Methone, Mexico, mimicry, Myscelia, Neotropical, Nicaragua, Nymphalidae, Panama, Peru, Phoebis, Pieridae, South America, Stalachtis, Symmachia, taxonomy.

Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. 1998. A new genus of riodinid, with a new species from Panama (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 1): 36-41.

Abstract: The new genus Archaeonympha n. gen., in the tribe Nymphidiini Bates, 1859, is described for the "drepana Bates, 1868, group" of species formerly included in the genus Theope Doubleday, 1847. A new species in this genus, Archaeonympha smalli n. sp., is also described from Panama.

Key words: Adelotypa, Archaeonympha n. gen., Archaeonympha smalli n. sp., Brazil, Central America, Chocó, cladistics, Colombia, Comphotis, Costa Rica, Ecuador, morphology, Neotropical, Peru, South America, taxonomy, Theope, Trinidad.

NOVEMBER 1998 Volume 9, Supplement 2

Warren, A. D., and L. González-Cota. 1998. Notes on the genus Piruna in western Mexico, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 2): 1-7.

Abstract: Notes on the elevational and temporal distribution of several Piruna species in western Mexico are presented, from several localities in the states of Sinaloa, Michoacán, and Oaxaca. Piruna purepecha n. sp. is described from 156 males and 46 females from the Mexican states of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán, Guerrero, and Morelos. Adults and genitalia of P. brunnea are illustrated and compared to P. purepecha. This new species is one of the most widesperead and abundant Piruna species in Michoacán, and has been found from 600-1700m elevation.

Resumen: Se presentan notas sobre la distributión altitudinal y temporal de algunas especies de Piruna al occidente de México, de varias localidades en los estados Mexicanos de Sinaloa, Michoacán, y Oaxaca. Se describe Piruna purepecha sp. n. a partir de 156 machos y 46 hembras provenientes de los estados de Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán, Guerrero, y Morelos. Se ilustran y comparan caracteres de los adultos y genitales de P. brunnea y P. purepecha. Esta especie nueva es una de las especies de Piruna mejor distribuida y más abundante en Michoacán; se encuentra entre 600-1700msnm.

Key words: Arizona, biogeography, Central America, Chihuahua, Colima, Dalla, Durango, Guatemala, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mesoamerica, Michoacán, Morelos, Nearctic, Neotropical, New Mexico, North America, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Piruna purepecha n. sp., Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, taxonomy, Texas, USA.

Austin, G. T., Mendez, C., and A. E. Launer. 1998. A preliminary checklist of Guatemala butterflies: Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 2): 8-18.

Abstract: A total of 384 species of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) have been recorded in the literature as occurring in Guatemala. Nearly 200 additional species occur in the adjacent countries of Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras, in the southernmost states of Mexico, or both north and south of Guatemala, and many of these will likely be recorded in the country with additional field work and continuing searches of museum collections.

Key words: Belize, biodiversity, Central America, distribution, El Salvador, Honduras, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, systematics.

Austin, G. T. 1998. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Anastrus and Tosta, with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 2): 19-25.

Abstract: The pyrgine genera Anastrus Hübner, 1824, and Tosta Evans, 1953 (Hesperiidae), found in the vicinity of Cacaulândia in central Rondônia, Brazil, are discussed and illustrated. Two new species, Anastrus virens n. sp. and Tosta capra n. sp., are described. Taxonomic comments and comparisons with material from other areas are made in some instances.

Key words: Anastrus virens n. sp., ants, Argentina, Bolivia, Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, Echelatus, Ecuador, Formicidae, Guatemala, Hymenoptera, Mexico, Neotropical, Peru, South America, symbiosis, taxonomy, Tosta capra n. sp., Venezuela.

Austin, G. T. 1998. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: notes on Talides Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 2): 26-32.

Abstract: The species of Talides Hübner, [1819] (Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) are characterized andtheir taxonomy is discussed. The taxa considered as subspecies by Evans (1955) are apparently species in their own right based on differences in genitalia and, often, sympatries and are herein raised to specific status: Talides hispa Evans, 1955, new status; Talides contra Evans, 1955, new status; Talides riosa Evans, 1955, new status. Four species occur in central Rondônia: Talides sergestus (Cramer, 1775), T. hispa, Talides sinois Hübner, [1819], and T. riosa. The male genitalia are illustrated for all taxa of the genus, as are those for some females.

Key words: Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, genitalia, Hylephila, Mexico, Neotropical, Panama, South America, taxonomy, Venezuela.

Janzen, D. H., Sharkey, M. J., and J. M. Burns. 1998. Parasitization biology of a new species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) feeding on larvae of Costa Rican dry forest skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 9(Suppl. 2): 33-41.

Abstract: The black and red medium-sized parasitoid wasp Bassus brooksi Sharkey n. sp. (Braconidae) is described from wild-caught specimens from dry forest habitats ranging from northern Mexico to the northwestern Costa Rican coastal plain, and from specimens reared from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The wasp larvae develop in the caterpillars of a relatively unrelated array of at least 24 species of pyrgine Hesperiidae. These hosts live in the broken shade and sun of forest edges while feeding on a variety of herbs, vines, and low woody plants. Oviposition occurs in an early to middle instar caterpillar, and a single wasp larva emerges from a penultimate or ultimate instar caterpillar to spin its large elongate white cocoon in the caterpillar's shelter next to the empty skin and head capsule of the caterpillar. Bassus brooksi is distinctive in not attacking any grass-feeding Hesperiidae caterpillars (Hesperiinae) in this same habitat, and in apparently ignoring many species of sympatric pyrgine hesperiids as well as all other taxa of caterpillars. Bassus brooksi is closely related to Bassus spiracularis, which ranges over much of North America, is broadly sympatric with B. brooksi in northern Mexico, and has been reared only from pyrgine hesperiid caterpillars. These are the only two species of agathidine braconids known to attack butterfly larvae. It is hoped that publication of this information in a lepidopterological journal will stimulate the recording of these parasitoids when they are encountered while studying caterpillars.

Key words: Agathidinae, Aguna, Anaea, Antigonus, Astraptes, Atames, Bassus, Bassus brooksi n. sp., behavior, Bungalotis, Cabares, Calliades, Canada, Carrhenes, Central America, Cephise, Chalcididae, Chiapas, Chioides, Chiomara, Cogia, El Salvador, Epargyreus, Erynnis, Gesta, Gorgythion, Guanacaste, Hesperiinae, Honduras, hyperparasite, Ichneumonidae, immatures, Jalisco, Malvaceae, Memphis, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Morelos, Mylon, Narcosius, Nascus, Nayarit, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Oaxaca, Ocyba, parasitoid, Pellicia, Perilampidae, Polyctor, Polygbnus, Polythrix, Pyrginae, Pyrrhopyginae, Sinaloa, Sostrata, Spathilepia, Staphylus, Systasea, Tamaulipas, taxonomy, Texas, Thessia, Timochares, Timochreon, USA, Urbanus, Veracruz, Xenophanes.

MAY 1999 Volume 10, Number 1

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 1999. Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorian Adelpha, with the description of two new species and seven new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 1-17.

Abstract: Two new species and seven new subspecies of Adelpha Hübner, [1819], are described from Ecuador (Adelpha attica hemileuca n. ssp., Adelpha hesterbergi n. sp., Adelpha hyas hewitsoni n. ssp., Adelpha iphicleola thessalita n. ssp., Adelpha iphiclus estrecha n. ssp., Adelpha lamasi n. sp., Adelpha radiata aiellae n. ssp., Adelpha radiata explicator n. ssp., Adelpha salus emmeli n. ssp.). The taxonomy and synonymy of Adelpha serpa (Boisduval, 1836) and related species, and Adelpha iphiclus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Adelpha iphicleola (H. W. Bates, 1864), are discussed and a number of taxonomic changes made.

Key words: Adelpha attica hemileuca n. ssp., Adelpha hesterbergi n. sp., Adelpha hyas hewitsoni n. ssp., Adelpha iphicleola thessalita n. ssp., Adelpha iphiclus estrecha n. ssp., Adelpha lamasi n. sp., Adelpha radiata aiellae n. ssp., Adelpha radiata explicator n. ssp., Adelpha salus emmeli n. ssp., bait trapping, Bolivia, Brazil, Canal Zone, Central America, Chocd, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, endemism, Mexico, mimicry, Neotropical, Panama, Paraguay, perching behavior, Peru, premontane rainforest, ridgetop, South America, taxonomy, Venezuela.

Heidelberger, D., and J. B. Heppner. 1999. Pachliopta polydorus biology in Queensland, Australia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 18.

Hall, J. P. W., and E. Furtado. 1999. Two new species and one subspecies of riodinid from southwest Brazil (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 19-24.

Abstract:Two new species and one subspecies in the riodinid genera Xenandra C. & R. Felder, 1865, Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932, and Pachythone Bates, 1868, are described from Mato Grosso and Rondônia states in south-west Brazil. The symmachiine species caeruleata Godman & Salvin, 1878, is transferred to the genus Esthemopsis C. & R. Felder, 1865, from Xenandra (stat. rev.).

Key words: Amazon, androconia, Argyrogrammana, Argyrogrammana talboti naranjilla n. ssp., Bolivia, Dioptinae, Ecuador, Esthemopsis, Guianas, Leguminosae, Mato Grosso, Mesene, Mesenopsis, Neotropical, Pachythone, Pachythone analuciae n. sp., Peru, Proteaceae, Rondônia, Sapindaceae, Stichelia, Symmachiini, taxonomy, Xenandra, Xenandra mielkei n. sp.

Callaghan, C. J., and J. Salazar-Escobar. 1999. A new species of Mesene from Colombia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 25-26.

Abstract: The symmachiine riodinid Mesene ingrumaensis Callaghan & Salazar, n. sp., is described from central Colombia, and notes are given on its habitat, habits and distribution.

Key words: behavior, Caldas, Edule, Geometridae, hilltopping, Mesene ingrumaensis n. sp., mimicry, Neotropical, South America, taxonomy.

Furtado, E., and C. Lemaire. 1999. The biology and immature stages of Automeris granulosa (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 27-29.

Abstract: The biology and immature stages of Automeris granulosa Conte (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) are described from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Notes are provided on the range and the larval hosts, and systematic relationship is discussed. In the laboratory the larvae fed on Eryihroxylum anguifugum Mart. (Erythtroxylaceae) and Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke (Leguminosae), Generation (oviposition to imago) lasted 88 days. Egg, larval instars, pupa, cocoon and adults are illustrated in color.

Resumo: A biologia e os estagios imaturos de Automeris granulosa Conte sao descritos de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Dados sobre as plantas hospedeiras e distribucao espacial sao informados; tambem e discutida a posicao sistematica da espdcie. Em laboratorio as larvas foram criadas com Erythroxylum anguifugum (Erythroxylaceae) e Vatairea macrocarpa (Leguminosae). A duracao do ciclo evolutivo foi de 88 dias. Ovos, todos os sete instares larval, o casulo, a pupa e os imagos sao ilustrados a cores.

Resume: La biologie et les états préimaginaux d'Automeris granulosa Conte sont décrits du Mato Grosso, Brasil. Des précisions sont apportées sur la répartition géographique et les plantes nourricières, ainsi que sur la position systématique de 1'espèce concernée. Les chenille décrites ont été élevées sur Erythroxylon anguifugum (Erythroxylaceae) et Vatairea macrocarpa (Leguminosae). Durée du cycle (de la ponte à 1'imago): 88 jours. L'œuf, les différents stades larvaires, la chrysalide, le cocon et 1'imago sont illustrés en couleurs.

Key words: Argentina, Brazil, Cerrados, eggs, Erythroxylaceae, geographical distribution, hostplants, larvae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Mato Grosso, Neotropical, phylogeny, South America, taxonomy.

Hall, J. P. W., and J. B. Heppner. 1999. Lemoniadini, a corrected tribal name in the Riodininae (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 30.

Abstract: The tribal name Lemoniini, in the butterfly family Riodinidae, is corrected to Lemoniadini,thus avoiding family-group homonymy with the moth family Lemoniidae.

Key words: Charitini, Coliadinae, Coliadini, Colias, Helicopini, Lemoniidae, Lemoniini, Neotropical, nomenclature, Pieridae, Sarotini, taxonomy.

Lemaire, C., Tangerini, N., and O. H. H. Mielke. 1999. A new genus of Ceratocampinae from Brazil (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 31-33.

Abstract: Jaiba Lemaire, Tangerini & Mielke, n. gen., is described for one new species, Jaiba kesselringi Lemaire, Tangerini & Mielke, n. sp., recently discovered in the state of Minas Gerais in eastern central Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Jaiba are discussed and the new species is described; adults and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated.

Resume: Jaiba Lemaire, Tangerini & Mielke, gen. nov., est un genre nouveau, décrit pour une espèce nouvelle, Jaiba kesselringi Lemaire, Tangerini & Mielke, sp. nov., récemment découverte dans 1'état de Minas Gerais, au Brésil central oriental. La position systématique du genre nouveau est discutée, le mâle et la femelle de I'espèce nouvelle et leurs armures génitales sont figurés.

Key words: Adelowalkeria, Brazil, Cicia, Jaiba n. gen., Jaiba kesselringi n. sp., Mielkesia, Minas Gerais, Neotropical, Oiticella, South America, taxonomy.

Heidelberger, D., and J. B. Heppner. 1999. Ornithoptera priamus biology in Queensland, Australia Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 34.

Hsu, Y.-F., and P.-S. Yang. 1999. On the host association and immature stages of Horaga rarasana Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 35-37.

Abstract: The larval host of Horaga rarasana Sonan is proven to be Symplocos sumuntia (Symplocaceae). Immature stages of this Taiwan endemic lycaenid has unusual characters, which are considered autapomorphic in Horaga.

Key words: biology, Cheritrini, endemism, Horaga, Horagini, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immaturestages, lolaini, Oriental, parasitoids, Rathinda, Rutaceae, Symplocaceae, Taiwan, taxonomy, Trichogrammatidae.

Heidelberger, D., and J. B. Heppner. 1999. Dysphania numana biology in Queensland, Australia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 38.

Hsu, Y.-F. 1999. On a continental subspecies of Chrysozephyrus rarasanus from China (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 39-41.

Abstract: Chrysozephyrus rarasanus (Matsumura), a species formerly considered as an endemic of Taiwan, is now found from continental China and described as a new subspecies: C. rarasanus occiduus n. subsp. The new subspecies has less intensive metallic green scaling on wings compared to the nominotypical subspecies. Larva of the new subspecies feeds on Quercus sessilifolia (Fagaceae), the same host utilized by the nominotypical subspecies. Due to the fact the plant is widely distributed, it is likely that C. rarasanus is much more widespread in distribution than currently recognized.

Key words: China, Chrysozephyrus rarasanus occiduus n. subsp., Fagaceae, hostplant, Oriental, Taiwan, taxonomy, Theclini.

Heidelberger, D., and J. B. Heppner. 1999. Polyura sempronius biology in Queensland, Australia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(1): 42.

NOVEMBER 1999 Volume 10, Number 2

DeVries, P. J., Penz, C. M., and T. R. Walla. 1999 (2000). The biology of Batesia hypochlora in an Ecuadorian Rainforest (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 43-46.

Abstract: Notes on the adult population biology and early stages of Batesia hypochlora are presented for the first time. The general natural history, population abundance, warning coloration, behavior, geographical distribution and hostplant use of Batesia hypochlora is discussed. Notes on the taxonomic relationship of Batesia and Panacea are also provided.

Key words: Amazon, Batesia, Bolivia, Brazil, Caligo, Callicore, Catonephele, Colombia, ecology, Ecuador, Epiphile, Euphorbiaceae, fruit-feeding nymphalids, hostplants, immature stages, larvae, life history, Neotropical, Nessaea, Panacea, Peru, population biology, pupae, seasonally, South America, warning coloration.

Mielke, O. H. H., Casagrande, M. M., and C. G. C. Mielke. 1999 (2000). Um novo Parides do sul do Brasil (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae: Troidini). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 47-49.

Abstract: Parides tros danunciae n. ssp. from Castelhanos, Guaratuba, Paraná, southern Brazil, is described.

Key words: Aristolochiaceae, Balsaminaceae, behavior, Brazil, hostplants, Neotropical, Paraná, Parides tros danunciae n. ssp., South America, taxonomy.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: Heliothine Moths of Australia: A Guide to Pest Bollworms and Related Noctuid Groups, by Marcus Matthews. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 50.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: Butterflies of Taiwan. Volume 1, by Yu-Feng Hsu. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 50.

Davis, D. R. 2000. Brachygyna incae, a new genus and species of psychid from Peru with atypical larval biology (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 51-58.

Abstract: Brachygyna incae, a new genus and species of Psychidae, is described from Machu Picchu, Peru, where the larva feeds on lichens growing on the walls of the ancient Inca fortress. The female is brachypterous, with wings approximately half the size of the males. Proposed synapomorphies for the genus include the unusual degree of wing reduction in the female, the loss of the basal pair of tibial spurs in the hindlegs, the narrowly V-shaped form of the saccus and the short, stout, ventral lobe of the valva in the male genitalia. Prepupal larval behavior is atypical of the family, with the last instar larva not inverting its body prior to pupation. The larva instead maintains an upright vertical position inside the larval case prior to pupation, with the adult later emerging from a subapical slit near the point of attachment of the case and not from the caudal end of the case in the manner typical of other Psychidae.

Key words: bagworm moth, Brachygyna n. gen., Brachygyna incae n. sp., chaetotaxy, hostplants, larva, larval biology, larval case, lichenivorous, Neotropical, Pterogyne, South America, taxonomy, Typhoniinae.

Cordero, R. J., Brown, R. L., and H. N. Pitre. 2000. Description of life stages and distribution of Metaponpneumata rogenhoferi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 59-67.

Abstract: The life stages of Metaponpneumata rogenhoferi Möschler, a pest of sorghum and maize in Honduras, are described. The egg, larva, pupa, imago, wing venation, and male and female genitalia are illustrated. Distribution records document a range from central Texas to southern California, south through Central America to Venezuela. The tribal relationship of Metaponpneumata is discussed relative to larval and adult characters of Eustrotiini and Acontiini.

Resumen: Los estados de vida de Metaponpneumata rogenhoferi Möschler, una plaga del sorgo y maiz en Honduras, son descritos. Ilustraciones del huevo, larva, pupa, imago, venacion del ala, y genitales del macho y hembra son presentadas. Archives sobre la distribucion de esta especie muestran un rango que comprende desde Texas hacia el sur de California, luego continua al sur pasando por Centra america hasta Venezuela. La relacion de Metaponpneumata con otros especies de las tribus Eustrotiini y Acontiini es discutida segun las caracteristicas de la larva y adulto.

Key words: Acontiinae, Acontiini, Asteraceae, Bagisarinae, Bagisarini, biology, California, Central America, chaetotaxy, Compositae, Convolvulaceae, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cydosiini, Dominican Republic, egg, El Salvador, Eublemiini, Eustrotiini, Gramineae, Homophoberia, Honduras, hostplants, larva, Louisiana, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neoerastria, Neotropical, Nicaragua, Portulacaceae, Puerto Rico, pupa, South America, taxonomy, Texas, USA, Venezuela, West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: The Butterflies of Hong Kong, by M. J. Bascombe, G. Johnston, and F. S. Bascombe. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 68.

Angulo, A. O., and T. S. Olivares. 1999 (2000). El registro más austral de Chile de una especie de nóctuido y algunos alcances de la variación cromática (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 69-71.

Resumen: Se presenta el registro más meridional de una especie de nóctuido: Pareuxoa flavicosta (Wallengren) y se hacen algunos alcances respecto a la variación cromática de nóctuidos andino-patagónicos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Abstract: The southernmost meridional record of a species of noctuid moth, Pareuxoa flavicosta (Wallengren), is presented. Some accounts in relation to chromatic variation of andean-patagonian noctuids are also made for other subantarctic Chilean species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Key words: Atlantagrotis, Argentina, Beriotisia, Caphornia, distribution, Euxoamorpha, Gramineae, hostplants, Janaesia, Magallanes, Neotropical, Noaubourgognea, Pareuxoa, Pseudoleucania, Schachoskoya, South America, Subantarctic.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: The Moths of Borneo: Part 5. Lymantriidae. Part 8. Castniidae, Callidulidae, Drepanidae, Uraniidae, by J. D. Holloway. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 72.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: Butterflies of Taiwan, by Jim-Yen Lee and Hsiau-Yue Wang. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 72.

Sourakov, A. 1999 (2000). Notes on the genus Calisto, with descriptions of the immature stages (Part 2) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 73-79.

Abstract: The biology of Calisto crypto Gali, C. nubila Lathy, and C. tasajera Gonzalez, Schwartz & Wetherbee is described for the first time and the taxonomic implications of these data for the genus are discussed. Characters supporting relatedness of these species to each other and to other species complexes of Calisto are found in immature stages and in the structures of male and female genitalia. The latter are illustrated for the members of the lyceia species complex and relationships between these species are suggested. C. hendersoni Gali is suggested to be a synonym of C. franciscoi. A little known species, C. raburni Gali is found to be the most distinct member of the complex, and an additional locality for it (Dominican Republic: Polo, Barahona Prov.) is provided. New collecting data for the recently discoveredC. tasajera add to the knowledge of this species' natural history. Finally, a theory of diversification is proposed for the lyceia complex.

Key words: Caribbean, Dominican Republic, eggs, Gramineae, Hispaniola, hostplants, larvae, Neotropical, Puerto Rico, pupae, taxonomy, West Indies.

Heppner, J. B. 1999. Book Review: Handbook of Zoology. 35. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography, edited by Niels P. Kristensen. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 80-82.

Emmel, T. C. 1999. Book Review: Nabokov's Blues: the Scientific Odyssey of a Literary Genius, by Kurt Johnson and Steve Coates. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 83.

Emmel, T. C. 1999. Book Review: Mariposas Bonaerensis: Butterflies of Buenos Aires, by Gustavo R. Canals. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 83.

Emmel, T. C. 1999. Book Review: A World of Butterflies: their Lives, Behavior and Future, by Phil Schappert. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(2): 84.

NOVEMBER 1999 Volume 10, Supplement 1

Meerman, J. C. 1999. Lepidoptera of Belize. Tropical Lepidoptera 10(Suppl. 1): 1-45.

MAY/November 2000 Volume 11, Number 1-2

Solis, M. A. 2000 (2003). Introduction: In celebration of Eugene G. Munroe. Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 1-6.

Neunzig, H. H. 2000 (2003). New Phycitine records for the Dominican Republic and description of a new species of Nefundella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 7-12.

Abstract: Twenty-nine species of Phycitinae are reported from the Dominican Republic for the first time. Also, Nefundella munroei n. sp. is described and illustrated, and a figure of the female genitalia of Hemiptiloceroides deltus Neunzig and Dow is included.

Key words: Amegarthria, Amyelois, Anabasis, Ancylostomia, Anadelosemia, Anegcephalesis, Anypsipyla, Australephestiodes, Bema, Caribbean, Caristanius, Coptarthria, Crocidomera, Davara, distribution, Ectomyelois, Erelieva, Etiella, Florida, Fundella, Haiti, Hemiptiloceroides, Hispaniola, Homoeosoma, hostplants, Hypargyria, Hypochalcia, Hypsipyla, Lipographis, Moodnopsis, Nefundella munroei n. sp., Neotropical, Olyca, Oncolabis, Oryctometopia, Ozamia, Peadus, Phycitodes, Stylopalpia, taxonomy, Ufa, USA, West Indies, Zamagiria.

Landry, B. 2000 (2003). Revision of the Neotropical genus Micrelephas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Crambinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 13-27.

Abstract: The Neotropical genus Micrelephas Dognin (type species, Micrelephas crassipalpis Dognin) is redescribed and redefined to include Diptychophora pictella Schaus, Argyria kadenii Zeller, as well as four new species, M. chalybeus, M. gaskini, M. pseudokadenii and M. helenae. A lectotype is designated for Diptychophora examinalis Meyrick which is synonyraized with M. pictella, and for Argyria kadenii Zeller. The caterpillar of M. pictella bores the bark of Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemao (Euphorbiaceae).

Resumen: Se redescribe y redefine el género neotropical Micrelephas Dognin (especie-tipo, Micrelephas crassipalpis Dognin) y se incluyen Diptychophora pictella Schaus, Argyria kadenii Zeller, y cuatro especies nuevas: M. chalybeus, M. gaskini, M. pseudokadenii y M. helenae. Se designa un lectotipo para Argyria kadenii Zeller y para Diptychophora examinalis Meyrick, un sinonimo de M. pictella. La larva de M. pictella es un barrenador de la corteza de Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemao (Euphorbiaceae).

Key words: Argyria, Argyriini, Diptychophora, Diptychophorini, Crambidae, Crambini, Crambinae, Euphorbiaceae, INBio, Micrelephas chalybeus n.sp., Micrelephas gaskini n.sp., Micrelephas pseudokadenii n.sp., Micrelephas helenae n.sp., Neotropical, Pyralidae, Pyraustinae, South America, taxonomy.

Solis, M. A. 2000 (2003). A new species of Epimorius feeding on Bromeliaceae in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Galleriinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 28-32.

Abstract: Epimorius maylinae n. sp., reared from Werauhia gladioliflora (Wendland) (Bromeliaceae) in Costa Rica, is described. The pupa is also described and compared to the pupa of Epimorius testaceellus Ragonot, a species which also has been reared from Bromeliaceae. Athaliptis Schaus, described from Costa Rica, is newly synonymized with Epimorius. Epimorius cymonia Schaus, n. comb., is the type species of Athaliptis and is reported for the first time from Pitcairnia sp. (Bromeliaceae). Other galleriines reared from Bromeliaceae are discussed.

Key words: Alpheias, Athaliptis, biology, Bromeliaceae, Cacotherapiini, Central America, Epimorius maylinae n.sp., Genopaschia, hostplants, immatures, Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Panama, pineapple, pupa, Tirathabini, taxonomy.

Solis, M. A., Sullivan, J. J., and D. H. Janzen. 2000 (2003). Cromarcha stroudagnesia, a new Chrysaugine species boring in shoots of Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae) in a Costa Rica dry forest (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Chrysauginae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 33-39.

Abstract: Cromarcha stroudagnesia Solis, n. sp., from the dry-forested Pacific coastal lowlands of northwestern to central Costa Rica and from the state of Jalisco in Mexico is described. Information on the biology and immature stages is also presented. The larvae bore inside the shoots of new rainy season growth of Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae) saplings. T. ochracea is known as corteza amarilla and is a tropical timber tree in Costa Rica.

Key words: biology, Braconidae, Central America, chaetotaxy, Chalcidoidea, Clydonopteron, Cromarcha stroudagnesia n.sp., Cryploses, Guanacaste, Hymenoptera, immatures, larva, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, parasitoids, pupa, Santa Rosa, taxonomy.

Solis, M. A, and V. O. Becker. 2000 (2003). Dichromatism and new synonymies of Carectocultus perstrialis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Schoenobiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 40-41.

Abstract: Two very distinct forms of Carectocultus that have been described as separate Neotropical species, C. perstrialis Hübner and C. repugnatalis (Walker), are shown to be one species. A new synonymy is listed, and the genetic ratio and adaptive significance of the two forms are discussed.

Key words: Bahamas, Caribbean, Cuba, distribution, Florida, Neotropical, sexual dimorphism, taxonomy, USA, West Indies.

Eichlin, T. D. 2000 (2003). Carmenta munroei, a new clearwing moth from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 42-43.

Abstract: A new species of Sesiidae from Costa Rica, Carmenta munroei Eichlin, n. sp., is described and salient features illustrated.

Key words: Arctiidae, Carmenta munroei n. sp., Central America, Ctenuchinae, distribution, Hymenoptera, Mesoamerica, mimicry, Neotropical, Puntarenas, sex attractants, taxonomy.

Eichlin, T. D. 2000 (2003). Carmenta guayaba, a new clearwing moth from Peru (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 44-45.

Abstract: A new species of Sesiidae from Iquitos, Peru, Carmenta guayaba Eichlin, n. sp., is described and salient features illustrated. Adults were reared from larvae boring in the bark of Psidium guajava L. (guava).

Key words: Amazon, Carmenta guayaba n. sp., distribution, hostplant, Iquitos, Loreto, mimicry,Myrtaceae, Neotropical, sex attractants, South America, taxonomy.

Adamski, D. 2000 (2003). A new North American Calosima (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae: Blastobasinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 46-48.

Abstract: Calosima munroei n. sp. is described from Marin and Contra Costa counties of coastal California. New host records for the genus include Cupressus goveniana Gordon, C. sargentii Jepson (Cupressaceae), and dead Salix sp. (Salicaceae). A photograph of the imago and illustrations of wing venation, male and female genitalia are included.

Key words: Blastobasidae, California, Calosima munroei n. sp., Cupressaceae, Gelechioidea, Holcocerini, hostplants, Nearctic, Salicaceae, taxonomy, USA.

Morais, H. C., and I. R. Diniz. 2000 (2003). Larva and hostplant of the Brazilian Cerrado Moth, Aucula munroei (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agarastinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 49-50.

Abstract: The caterpillar of Aucula munroei Todd & Poole is reported and figured in color for the first time. Caterpillars were found in cerrado areas (savanna-like vegetation) only on the hostplant, Davilla elliptica (Dilleniaceae). They were reared in the laboratory to maturity.

Key words: biology, Brazil, cerrado, Dilleniaceae, ecology, Ecuador, hostplant, immature stages, larva, Neotropical, Panama, South America, Vitaceae.

Angulo, A. O., and T. S. Olivares. 2000 (2003). Biología y estados inmaduros del barrenador de la corteza, Schistotheca canescens, en Chile (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Galleriinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 51-55.

Abstract: The immature stages of the Chilean species, Schistotheca canescens Ragonot (Pyralidae: Galleriinae), are described and illustrated, together with life history notes. The larvae feed on the giant bromeliads of the genus Puya.

Key words: biology, Bromeliaceae, chaetotaxy, immatures, larva, morphology, Neotropical, pupa, South America.

Heppner, J. B. 2000 (2003). Distribution notes on Taiwan moths: 1. Cotachena and Uthinia (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 11(1-2): 56.

Abstract: Species of Cotachena recorded from Taiwan are noted with extended distribution records from the Taiwan Lepidoptera Survey.

Key words: Asia, East Asia, Musotiminae, Oriental, Pyraustinae, Scopariinae, taxonomy.

MAY/November 2001 Volume 12, Number 1-2

Kassarov, L. 2001 (2004). Is aposematism a valid concept in predator-prey relationships between birds and butterflies? A different point of view. Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 1-15.

Abstract: The concept of aposematism, especially in regard to butterflies, is discussed in terms of the close interrelationship between butterflies, as prey, and birds, as their predators, in their common environment. Vision, in a broad sense, and especially in terms of the visual capabilities of the avian eye, is discussed as a basis for understanding the difference between the aerial hawker insectivorous bird predators of butterflies, and all other birds, regardless of whether considered primarily insectivorous or not. The marked differences in foraging behavior determine how a bird perceives the bright color patterns of butterflies. For aposematic color patterns to be effective, they have to be seen by the bird as an optical device advertising distasteful or toxic qualities of the potential prey so that the predator avoids them by sight. It is argued here that birds that prey on butterflies do not perceive them as an aposematic insect, as postulated by the concept of aposematism. The bird does not reject a butterfly on the basis of color pattern, but on the basis of characteristic morphological and behavioral patterns which provide the bird with a signal as to whether the butterfly is energetically profitable or unprofitable for the bird as a food source.

Key words: Agraulis, Agrias, Anaea, aposematic butterflies, aposematic coloration, aposematism, Arctiidae, Aves, avian visual system, Battus, behavior, cardenolides, Cerambycidae, Coccinellidae, Coleoptera, color patterns, cryptic coloration, Danainae, Delias, Dismorphia, flight patterns, foraging behavior, Heliconiinae, Heliconius, Hemiptera, hostplants, Hymenoptera, insectivorous birds, Ithomiinae, Mechanltis, Neruda, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Papilio, Parides, Pieridae, Pieris, Rhopalocera, toxicity, Tyria, vision.

Emmel, T. C. 2001 (2004). Book Review: Butterflies of Australia: their Identification, Biology and Distribution, by Michael F. Braby. Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 16.

Costa, J. T., Fitzgerald, T. D., and D. H. Janzen. 2001 (2004). Trail-following behavior and natural history of the social caterpillar of Arsenura armida in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Arsenurinae).Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 17-23.

Abstract: Arsenura armida (Cramer) is a large, social Neotropical saturniid caterpillar that is common in the tropical dry forest of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. This aposematic caterpillar feeds side-by-side in highly visible nomadic groups in the crowns of at least three distantly-related tree species in early instars. In the last two instars, it rests in equally visible groups on the tree trunks in the day while ascending to the tree crown to feed at night. This species may to be unique among arsenurines in exhibiting these traits; all known caterpillars of other species in this subfamily are cryptic, and none is known to be social. Laboratory studies show that larval trail-following is elicited by surface cuticular material collected by wiping from the venter and dorsum of the abdomen of A. armida caterpillars. Crude extracts of somatic tissue also elicited trail-following. This is the first published demonstration of pheromone-based trail-following by a saturniid. The long-lived trail marker used by this species appears to be a component of the cuticle and is passively deposited from the posterio-ventral region of the abdomen as larvae travel over the host plant. Unlike other social Lepidoptera such as tent caterpillars, these trails are not deposited on silk, but rather directly on the plant substrate. A, armida larvae are capable of discriminating between extract-derived artificial trails differing in strength by a factor of 2 or greater. The trail marker is highly persistent on paper. In the laboratory, a 24-hour-old trail is nearly as attractive as a freshly deposited trail.

Key words: Annonaceae, aposematism, behavior, biology, Bolivia, Bombacaceae, Brazil, Central America, chemical communication, Ciao, Copiopteryx, Diptera, Dysdaemonia, Guanacaste, hostplants, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, immatures, larva, larval behavior, Lasiocampidae, Malacosoma, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, oviposition, Paradaemonia, parasitoids, pheromones, Rhesyntis, social caterpillars, Sterculiaceae, Tachinidae, Titaea, trail pheromones.

Heppner, J. B. 2001 (2004). Book Review: Fluttering Encounters in the Amazing Archipelago, by J. Pasternak. Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 24.

Balcázar-Lara, M., and K. R. Willmott. 2001 (2004). A new subspecies of Adelpha erymanthis from Mexico, with a key to identification of similar taxa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidini). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 25-28.

Abstract: Adelpha erymanthis esperanza n. ssp. is described from the Sierra de Juárez in northern Oaxaca, Mexico, and a key for identification of similar taxa in Mexico is presented (Adelpha milleri, A. boeotia oberthurii, A. erymanthis erymanthis, A. delinita utina, A. phylaca phylaca).

Resumen: Se describe Adelpha erymanthis esperanza n. ssp., de la Sierra de Juárez en el norte de Oaxaca, México. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de otros táxones similares presentes en México (Adelpha milleri, A. boeotia oberthurii, A. erymanthis erymanthis, A. delinita utina, A. phylacaphylaca).

Key words: Adelpha erymanthis esperanza n. ssp., biogeography, cloud forest, endemism, Neotropical, Oaxaca, taxonomy.

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 2001 (2004). Taxonomic notes on the genus Zaretis, with the description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 29-34.

Abstract: We review the taxonomy of the genus Zaretis Hübner, [1819], restoring Zaretis isidora Cramer to specific status (stat. rev.) and describing a new species, Zaretis pythagoras n. sp., from the Chocó region of western Colombia and western Ecuador. We also provide a key to identification of adult Zaretis and a synonymic checklist of all described names.

Key words: Anaea, Anaeini, Antioquia, Chocó, Colombia, Consul, Ecuador, endemism, Esmeraldas, Memphis, Neotropical, Pichincha, premontane, rainforest, Risaralda, Siderone, South America, taxonomy, Zaretis pythagoras n. sp.

Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. 2001 (2004). Five new riodinid species from the Napo region of Ecuador and Peru (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 35-41.

Abstract: Five new riodinid species in the genera Euselasia Hübner, [1819] (Euselasia michaeli n. sp. and Euselasia rufomarginata n. sp.), Mesosemia Hübner, [1819] (Mesosemia kahuapayani n. sp. and Mesosemia quadralineata n. sp.), and Calospila Geyer, [1832] (Calospila napoensis n. sp.), are described from the Napo river region of Ecuador and northern Peru. We make the following nomenclatural changes: Mesosemia materna Stichel, 1909, and M. subtilis Stichel, 1909 = M. thymetus umbrosa Stichel, 1909 (n. syns.), M. sylvina Bates, 1868 = M. cippus Hewitson, 1859 (n. syn.), Calospila cerealis (Hewitson, 1863) = C. rhesa (Hewitson, 1858) (n. syn.), and C. pirene (Godman, 1903) and C. caecina (C. & R. Felder, 1865) are reinstated to species status (stat. revs.).

Key words: bioinventory, Bolivia, Brazil, Calospila napoensis n. sp., Colombia, Ecuador, Euselasia michaeli n. sp., Euselasia rufomarginata n. sp., Mesosemia kahuapayani n. sp., Mesosemia quadralineata n. sp., Neotropical, South America, taxonomy.

Heppner, J. B. 2001 (2004). Book Review: The Life Histories of the Taiwanese Theclini, by H. Uchida. Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 42.

Calhoun, J. V. 2001 (2004). Massing of Urania fulgens at lights in Belize (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(1-2): 43-44.

DECEMBER 2001 Volume 12, Supplement 1

Sourakov, A. 2001.The Terrible Solomons. Tropical Lepidoptera 12(Suppl. 1): 1-4.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 2001. On the toxic diet of day-flying moths in the Solomon Islands (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(Suppl. 1): 5-6.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 2001. Notes on life histories of Satyrinae in the Solomon Islands (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(Suppl. 1): 7-12.

Abstract: Immature stages of Mycalesis splendent, M. interrupta, M. perseus, Orsotriaena medus, and Argyronympha pulchra from the Solomon Islands are described, and the taxonomic implications of these data are discussed. Mycalesis and Orsotriaena exhibit similarities to other Mycalesini, such as the African genus Bicyclus, but also show strong intrageneric differences and affinity of Orsotriaena to other primitive satyrine tribes. Argyronympha shares some characters with other advanced Satyrinae (e.g., Erebiini of the Holarctic region). Divergence of immature stages found in different members of M. splendens group supports splitting taxonomic decisions made by the previous authors based on adult morphology.

Key words: Argyronympha, biogeography, eggs, Erebiini, Hypocystini, immatures, larvae, life histories, Mycalesini, Mycalesis, Orsotriaena, pupae, Solomon Islands, taxonomy.

Tennent, W. J. 2001. A review of the genus Mycalesis in the Solomons Archipelago, with descriptions of seven new taxa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 12(Suppl. 1): 13-24.

Abstract: Butterflies of the satyrine genus Mycalesis Hübner, 1818 from the Solomons Archipelago are assessed in the light of recent field work and material contained in major museum collections. Confusion in the nomenclature of Solomon Islands Mycalesis is discussed and resolved. M. splendens splendens is restricted to Treasury Island, M. interrupta is raised to species status, and the following seven new taxa are described: M. richardi sp. nov., M. biliki sp. nov., M. splendens versicolor ssp. nov., M. splendens guadalcanalensis ssp. nov., M. splendens magnificans ssp. nov., M. splendens lenebrosus ssp. nov., and M. interrupta woodsi ssp. nov.

Key words: biogeography, distribution, Mycalesis biliki n. sp., Mycalesis interrupta woodsi n. ssp., Mycalesis richardi n. sp., Mycalesis splendens guadalcanalensis n. ssp., Mycalesis splendens magnificans n. ssp., Mycalesis splendens versicolor n. ssp., Mycalesis splendens tenebrosus n. ssp., Oceania, taxonomy.

MAY/November 2002 Volume 13, Number 1-2

Davis, D. R., and D. L. Wagner. 2002 (2005). Biology and systematics of the Neotropical leafminer genus Eucosmophora (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 13(1-2): 1-40.

Abstract: The Neotropical moth genus Eucosmophora Walsingham 1897 is revised. Sixteen species are recognized: E. atlantis (Meyr.) n. comb., E. chrysocosma (Meyrick) n. comb., E. dives Walsingham (the type of the genus), E. eclampsis (Durrant), n. comb., E. eurychalca (Meyrick) n. comb., E. melanactis (Meyrick) n. comb., E. sideroxylonella Busck, E. trimetalla (Meyrick) n. comb., and the following new species, E. aspila n. sp., E. echinulata n. sp., E. ingae n. sp., E. manilkarae n. sp., E. paraguayensis n. sp., E. pithecellobiae n. sp., E. pouteriae n. sp., and E. prolata n. sp. An additional species from Venezuela is described and illustrated, but is not named because of its poor condition. The genus is composed of two morphologically and biologically distinct groups: the sideroxylonella group (aspila, atlantis, chrysocosma, eurychalca, manilkarae, melanactis, paraguayensis, pouteriae, prolata, sideroxylonella, and possibly eclampsis), which includes species whose larvae are known to mine the leaves of Sapotaceae; and the dives group (dives, ingae, pithecellobiae, and possibly echinulata and trimetalla), whose larvae are known or suspected to mine leaves of Fabaceae. Eucosmophora ornata Walsingham is retained in Acrocercops as placed by Meyrick (1912a). Eucosmophora cupreella Walsingham is transferred to Neurostrota: N. cupreella (n. comb.). The genus occurs through the Neotropical Region, from southern Florida and Texas and the West Indies south to Paraguay in shrubland and forest habitats. As is typical for the Gracillariidae, the larva is hypermetamorphic. The body of the first three sap-feeding instars is apodal, flattened, and the mouthparts prognathous. The body of the two tissue-feeding instars possesses thoracic legs, prolegs on abdominal segments 3-5 and 10, are cylindrical, and hypognathous. The last instar larva exits the mine and forms an oval cocoon whose outer surface is ornamented with a vesture of short, erect silken spikes.

Key words: Acrocercops, biology, Brazil, Caribbean, Central America, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, E. aspila n. sp., E. echinulata n. sp., E. ingae n. sp., E. manilkarae n. sp., E. paraguayensis n. sp., E. pithecellobiae n. sp., E. pouteriae n. sp., E. prolata n. sp., Florida, Grenada, Guyana, hostplants, hypermetamorphosis, immature stages, larvae, leafmining moths, life history, morphology, Neotropical, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, pupae, South America, taxonomy, Texas, USA, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, West Indies.

MAY/November 2003 Volume 14, Number 1-2

Shaffer, J. C., and E. Munroe. 2003 (2007). Crambidae of Aldabra Atoll (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 14(1-2): 1-110.

Abstract: The Family Crambidae is represented on the western Indian Ocean atoll of Aldabra by 9 subfamilies of 44 genera and 49 species. Ten genera (typespecies indicated) are described as new: Lirabotys n. gen. (liralis Legrand); Pioneabathra n. gen. (olesialis Walker); Legrandellus n. gen. (fuscolarosalis Legrand); Microgeshna n. gen. (laportei Legrand); Ommatobotys n. gen. (ommatalis Hampson); Poliobotys n. gen. (ablactalis Walker); Nausinoella n. gen. (aphrospila Meyrick); Glyphodella n. gen. (savyalis Legrand); Chabulina n. gen. (putrisalis Viette); and Alytana n. gen. (aldabralis Viette). Six species: Autocharis linealis n. sp., A. discalis n. sp., Notarcha digitalis n. sp., Synclera seychellensis n. sp., Herpetogramma juba n. sp., and H. continualis n. sp., are newly described. There are 15 new combinations of Aldabra species and one species, Alytana aldabralis, is elevated from subspecific to full species rank. Platamonina is proposed as a replacement name for the preoccupied Platamonia Lederer, 1863. The American species Salbia haemorrhoidalis Guenée, 1854, is transferred to Orphanostigma. TheAfrican Noorda ecthoemata Hampson and the Malagasian N. seyrigalis Marion and Viette are transferred to Autocharis. Two South African species, Botys prolausalis Walker and Pyrausta rufitincta Hampson, are transferred to Lirabotys. The South African Bocchoris flavibrunnea Hampson and the Malagasian Diasticlis vadonalis Viette are transferred to Glyphodella. Hydrocampa tenera Butler, described from Sulawesi, is transferred to Chabulina. Eurrhyparodes abnegatalis (Walker), formerly a junior synonym of E. tricoloralis (Teller), is reinstated as a separate species with E. confusalis (Warren) as a junior synonym. Nine species (18.4%) and 1 subspecies are endemic to Aldabra, and a total of 12 species (24.5%) are endemic to the Aldabra Group (Aldabra, Assumption, Astove, Cosmoledo) of atolls. Relationships of nonendemic species are 38.8% Cosmopolitan or Paleotropical, 30.6% Ethiopian, 4.1% Western Indian Ocean, and 2.0% Oriental. All taxa are characterized and detailed descriptions are given for most of them, including all new genera and species. Keys are provided to subfamilies, genera, and species. Adult moths and genitalia of both sexes (where known) are illustrated for all species, and representative wing venation drawings are included for all genera. Geographic distributions, host data, and disposition of type-specimens are given to the extent known, and synonymies are provided for included genera and species. Zoogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of included taxa are discussed where sufficiently known.

Key words: Acentropinae, Achyra, Africa, Alytana n.gen., Autocharis, Autocharis discalis n.sp., Autocharis linealis n.sp., biodiversity, biology, Bocchoris, Botys, Chabulina n.gen., Chrysocatharylla, Cirrhochrista, Condylorrhiza, Crambinae, Crocidolomia, Cybalomiinae, Diaphania, Diasemiopsis, Diastictis, distribution, Duponchelia, Ethiopian, Eurrhyparodes, Evergestinae, expeditions, Glaphyriinae, Glyphodella n.gen., Hellula, Herpetogramma, Herpetogramma continualis n.sp., Herpetogramma juba n.sp., Hodebertia, hostplants, Hydrocampa, Hymenia, Hymenoptychis, Isocentris, Legradnellus n.gen., Lirabotys n.gen., Madagascar, Marasmia, Metasia, Microgeshna n.gen., Nausinoella n.gen., Noorda, Noordinae, Notarcha, Notarcha digitalis n.sp., Nymphulinae, Odontiinae, Omiodes, Ommatobotys n.gen., Orphanostigma, Pagyda, Palpita, Parapoynx, Pardomima, Pessocosma, Pioneabathra n.gen., Platamonina, Poliobotys n.gen., Pyralidae, Pyrausta, Pyraustinae, Salbia, Schoenobiinae, Scirpophaga, Seychelles, South Africa, Spilomelinae, Spoladea, Stemorrhages, Stenochora, Sulawesi, Synclera, Synclera seychellensis n.sp., taxonomy, Thyridiphora, zoogeography.

MAY/November 2004 Volume 15, Number 1-2

Viloria, A. L. 2004 (2007). The Pronophilina: Synopsis of their biology and systematics (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 15(1-2): 1-17.

Abstract: A summary of the current knowledge on the satyrine butterflies of the Neotropical subtribe Pronophilina is presented, with an emphasis on their larval host-plant relationships, the possible mimetic resemblances between these and other montane butterflies, and their conservation. The systematics of thegroup is re-assessed and the tribe re-defined on the basis of a minimum combination of morphological characters.

Resumen: Se presenta una compilación del conocimiento disponible sobre las mariposas satirinas de la subtribu Pronophilina, con énfasis en, la relación de sus larvas con las plantas hospederas, las posibles semejanzas miméticas entre las mariposas pronofilinas y otras mariposas neotropicales de montaña, y suconservación. Se reevalúa la sistemática del grupo, quedando redefinida la tribu en base a una mínima combinación de caracteres morfológicos.

Key words: Altopedaliades, Andes, Antopedaliodes, Arhuaco, bamboos, Bia, Biina, Calislo, Cheimas, cloud forest, conservation, Corades, Daedalma, Dangond, Diaphanos, Dioriste, Diptera, Drucina, Elina, Erebiina, Eretris, Eteona, Foetterleia, Fuego-Patagonian, Gramineae, higher classification, host plants, Hypocystina, Junea, Lasiophila, Lymanopoda, Manerebia, mimicry, morphology, Mygona, Neotropical, Oxeoschistus, Panyapedaliodes, Paramo, paramo, Parapedaliodes, parasitism, Pedaliodes, Pherepedaliodes, Physcopedaliodes, Poaceae, Praepedaliodes, Pronophila, Protopedaliodes, Pseudomaniola, Punapedaliodes, Redonda, seasonality, sedentarism, Sierrasteroma, South America, Sleremnia, Steroma, Steromapedaliodes, Tamania, Thiemeia, West Indies.

Pyrcz, T. W., and A. L. Viloria. 2004 (2007). Erebiine and Pronophiline butterflies of the Serranía del Tamá, Venezuela-Colombia border (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 15(1-2): 18-52.

Abstract: This is a comprehensive faunal survey of the montane subtribes Erebiina and Pronophilina (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) in the Serranía del Tamá - an Andean range situated on the border between Venezuela and Colombia in the northeastern Cordillera Oriental. Herein, 56 species are recognized and discussed. The Serranía del Tamá is a relatively low chain barely separated from the main backbone of the eastern Colombian Andes. However, its fauna contains a high percentage of taxa different at a subspecific or even specific level as compared to central or southern Cordillera Oriental fauna, particularly at higher elevations. A monobasic genus, Ianussiusa, was erected to accommodate the taxon originally described as Lymanopoda maso Godman. Six new species and thirteen new subspecies are described: Altopedaliodes tamaensis n.sp., Eretris apuleja remotissima n.ssp., Eretris porphyria recta n.ssp., Ianussiusa maso santa n.ssp., Idioneurula eremita n. sp., Lasiophila circe arithmetica n.ssp., Lasiophila zapatoza elusiva n.ssp., Lymanopoda lebbaea moritzi n.ssp., Lymanopoda lecromi n.ssp., Lymanopoda samius lineana n.ssp., Oxeoschistus puerta magnus n.ssp., Pedaliodes baccara allopalra n.ssp., Pedaliodes empusa medusa n.ssp., Pedaliodes plotina ruricola n.ssp., Pedaliodes praemontagna n.sp., Pedaliodes reyi n.sp., Pedaliodes Valencia n.sp., Pronophila epidipnis orcidipnis n.ssp., Steremnia pronophila fluminea n.ssp. Four new combinations are established, and two others revised; six revisions of status are made, and one status is reinstated. Additionally, two new specific synonymies are established, and sixteen lectotypes designated. The fauna of El Tamá shows few affinities with the Cordillera de Mérida, its closest eastern neighbouring range. Therefore, the importance of the Táchira Depression as the main zoogeographical barrier between them is evaluated.

Resumen: Se hace un inventario de las subtribus de mariposas Erebiina y Pronophilina (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) en la Serranía del Tamá, un macizo montanoso andino situado en la frontera colombo-venezolana, en la punta noreste de la Cordillera Oriental. Se identifican 56 especies. La Serranía del Tamá es un macizo de altitudes medianas, poco diferenciado del resto de los Andes orientales colombianos. Sin embargo, su fauna de mariposas contiene un alto porcentaje de taxones diferentes a niveles subespecifico y especifico, comparada con la lepidopterofauna del sur de la Cordillera Oriental, particularmente en sus mayores elevaciones. Se erigio un genero monobasico, lanussiusa, para ubicar la especie originalmente descrita como Lymanopoda maso Godman. Se describen seis especies y catorce subespecies nuevas: estos nombres en al Abstract arriba. Se establecen cuatro combinaciones nuevas, y se revisan otras dos; se hacen seis revisiones de status, y se reinstaura una. Adicionalmente, se establecen tres sinonimias a nivel especifico y se designan dieciseis lectotipos. La fauna del Tamá tiene pocas afinidades con la de la Cordillera de Mérida, su vecina orografica inmediata. For tanto, se evalua la importancia de la Depresion del Táchira como barrera zoogeografica entre ambas Cordilleras.

Key words: affinities, Altopedaliodes, Altopedaliodes tamaensis n.sp., Andes, cloud forests, Corades, Cordillera de Mérida, Cordillera Oriental, Cyperaceae, Daedalma, Erebiini, Eretris, Eretris apuleja remotissima n.ssp., Eretris porphyria recta n.ssp., hostplants, Ianussiusa, Ianussiusa maso santa n.ssp., Idioneurula eremita n.sp., Junea, Lasiophila, Lasiophila circe arithmetica n.ssp., Lasiophila zapatoza elusiva n.ssp., Lymanopoda, Lymanopoda lebbaea moritzi n.ssp., Lymanopoda lecromi n.ssp., Lymanopoda samius lineana n.ssp., Manerebia, Mygona, Neotropical, Norte de Santander, Oxeoschistus, Oxeoschistus puerta magnus n.ssp., Panyapedaliodes, Pedaliodes, Pedaliodes baccara allopatra n.ssp., Pedaliodes empusa medusa n.ssp., Pedaliodes plotina ruricola n.ssp., Pedaliodes praemontagna n.sp., Pedaliodes reyi n.sp., Pedaliodes valencia n.sp., Praepronophila, Pronophila, Pronophila epidipnis orcidipnis n.ssp., Pronophilina, Pseudomaniola, South America, Steremnia pronophila fluminea n.ssp., Steroma, Táchira, taxonomy, zoogeography.

Viloria, A. L. 2004 (2007). Some Gondwanan and Laurasian elements in the Satyrine fauna of South America (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 15(1-2): 53-55.

Abstract: A summary of the current knowledge on the satyrine butterflies in South America is given, and 27 American satyrine genera, most of them Fuego-Patagonian or high Andean, are transferred to other subtribes: 19 to the Hypocystina, and 8 to the Erebiina. Two genera formerly believed to belong to the Pronophilina remain in uncertain positions.

Resumen: Se transfieren a otras tribus veintisiete géneros de satirinos americanos, la mayoría de ellos fuego-patagónicos o altiandinos: diecinueve pasan a Hypocystina, y ocho a Erebiina. Dos géneros, anteriormente considerados como pertenecientes a Pronophilina permanecen por el momenta en posición incierta.

Key words: Amphidecta, Argyrophorus, Auca, biogeography, Chillanella, Cosmosatyrus, Diaphanos, Elina, Erebia, Erebiola, Erebiina, Etcheverrius, Faunula, Gyrocheilus, Haywardella, Homoeonympha, Hypocystina, Idioneurula, Lymanopoda, Manerebia, Nelia, Neomaenas, Neomaniola, Neosatyrus, Neotropical, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Oreixenica, Palmaris, Pampasatyrus, Pamperis, Paratisiphone, Percnodaimon, Pronophilina, Punargentus, Quilaphoetosus, Sabatoga, South America, Spinantenna, Stuardosatyrus, Tamania, Tasmania, taxonomy, Telraphlebia, Tisiphone, Xenica.

Viloria, A. L. 2004 (2007). The Brazilian genus, Foetterleia, and its systematics (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 15(1-2): 56-58.

Abstract: The pronophiline genus, Foetterleia, is redescribed and discussed, with one endemic Brazilian species.

Resumen: Se redscribe y justifica un género pronofilíno, Foetterleia, para ubicar una especie endémica del Brasil.

Key words: Arhuaco, Brazil, Eteona, Foetterleia, Junea, Neotropical, Oxeoschistus, Pronophila, Pseudomaniola, South America, taxonomy, Thiemeia.

MAY/November 2005 Volume 16, Number 1-2

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 2005 (2007). Four new species of Symmachiini from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 1-5.

Abstract: Four new species in the riodinid tribe Symmachiini, Symmachia busbyi n. sp., Symmachia emeralda n. sp., Pirascca patriciae n. sp., and Xenandra ahrenholzi n. sp. are described from Ecuador, with brief notes on their habitats and behavior. The taxon hypochloris Bates, 1868, is transferred from Exoplisia Godman & Salvin, 1886, in the tribe Riodinini, to Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (n. comb.), Xenandra heliodes C. & R. Felder, 1865, is synonymised with Xenandra agria (Hewitson, [1853]) (n. syn.), and the taxon mielke Hall & Furtado, 1999, is transferred from Xenandra C. & R. Felder, 1865, to Symmachia (n. comb.).

Key words: androconia, Cayenne, Chocó, cloud forest, endemism, Exoplisia, French Guiana, Junín, Menander, Mesene, Mesenopsis, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, perching behavior, Periplacis, Peru, Pichincha, Pirascca, Pirascca patriciae n. sp., Riodinini, San Martín, South America, Stichelia, Symmachia, Symmachia busbyi n. sp., Symmachia emeralda n. sp., taxonomy, Tungurahua, Xenandra, Xenandra ahrenholzi n. sp.

Heppner, J. B. 2005 (2007). Book Review: Hawkmoths of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Revisionary Checklist (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), by Ian J. Kitching and Jean-Marie Cadiou. Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 6.

Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. 2005 (2007). Three new species of Symmachiini from Panama and Colombia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 7-10.

Abstract: Three new species in the riodinid tribe Symmachiini, Symmachia satana n. sp., Lucillella splendida n. sp. and Esthemopsis talamanca n. sp., are described from Panama and Colombia. The male of Symmachia praxila Westwood is illustrated, and the taxon returned to species rank (stat. rev.); L. pomposa Stichel is also raised to species rank (n. stat.).

Key words: androconia, Boyacá, Central America, Chiriquí, Chocó, cloud forest, Colombia, Colón, Costa Rica, endemism, Esthemopsis, Esthemopsis talamanca n. sp., Lucillella, Lucillella splendida n. sp., Mesoamerica, Neotropical, Panama, Puntarenas, South America, Symmachia, Symmachia satana n. sp., taxonomy.

Heredia, M. D., and H. Alvarez-López. 2005 (2007). Biología y conservación de Morpho sulkowskyi en Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 11-21.

Resumen: El presente trabajo describe por primera vez el ciclo de vida de Morpho sulkowskyi , en la Cordillera Central (2500 m), Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Esta mariposa pone en promedio 16 huevos agrupados, sobre hojas de Chusquea aff. scandens (Poaceae), una planta pionera abundante en claros y sotobosque proximo a cursos de agua. Se estima que la actividad de oviposicion tiene un maximo en diciembre, al comienzo de la epoca seca mas larga del ano. Avispas parasitoides del genero Ooencyrtus (Encyrtidae) afectaron el 80% de las posturas encontradas. En comparacion con las larvas de otras especies de Morpho destacamos para M. sulkowskyi la presencia de un par de pequenos cuernos epicraneales y los mechones de setas caracteristicos del genero en mayor numero de segmentos que en las demas especies estudiadas. Desde el primer instar se observa la glandula cervical y desde el tercer instar los mechones dorsales de Al, involucrados en la glandula de acicalamiento. La notable duracion del ciclo, de aproximadamente seis meses, puede ser debida a las bajas temperaturas y/o a la baja calidad nutricional de la planta huesped. Comportamientos tales como la construction de camas gregarias, actividad nocturna, movimientos bruscos de cabeza, exposition de la glandula cervical, regurgitacion y coloracion aposematica, podrian servir para evitar parasitoides y depredadores durante el prolongado periodo larval. A pesar de la abundancia de la planta huesped, la poblacion de adultos es baja debido posiblemente a limitaciones en sus recursos nutricionales espacial y temporalmente disperses y cuya disponibilidad se ve afectada por la degradacibn de los fragmentos de bosque. Se sugiere que el mantenimiento y el fomento de corredores boscosos a lo largo de los cursos de agua contribuiria a la conservacion de M. sulkowskyi y de muchas otras especies de mariposas que comparten este habitat.

Abstract: We provide the first description of the life cycle of Morpho sulkowskyi, in the Cordillera Central (2500m), Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Eggs are laid on the leaves of Chusquea aff. scandens (Poaceae). Comparison is made with immature stages of other species of Morpho. Behavior and conservation of the species in Colombia are discussed.

Key words: Andes, Antioquia, aposematic, behavior, defence mechanisms, eggs, Encyrtidae, glands, hostplants, Hymenoptera, larva, life cycle, morphology, Neotropical, parasitoids, Poaceae, pupa, Satyrinae, South America.

Heppner, J. B. 2005 (2007). Book Review: The Families of Malesian Moths and Butterflies, by J. D. Holloway, G. Kibby, and D. Peggie. Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 22.

Steiner, H. 2005 (2007). Life history of Melanocyma faunula in Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 23-26.

Abstract: Information and pictures of the immature stages of Melanocyma faunula (Westwood) found in Peninsular Malaysia are presented here for the first time. Eggs and larvae were found exclusively on the palm, Orania sylvicola (Griff.) H.E. Moore (Palmae).

Key words: Amathusia, Amathusiinae, Amathusiini, behavior, Asia, biology, distribution, egg, Faunis, hostplant, immatures, larva, larval behavior, life history, Oriental, oviposition, Palmae, pupa, Southeast Asia, Taenaris.

Hirowatari, T. 2005 (2007). Notes on Nemophora in Vietnam, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Adelidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 16(1-2): 27-34.

Abstract: Nemophora tanakai n. sp., which is a close relative of N. fluorites (Meyrick, 1907), is described from Tam Dao, Vietnam. N. fluorites is also recorded from Vietnam and Myanmar for the first time and given descriptive notes. Nemotois takamukuella Matsumura, 1932, which was described based on a single male from "Japan," is synonymized with N. fluorites (Meyrick). The former was considered to be erroneously recorded from Japan.

Key words: Asia, India, Japan, Myanmar, nectaring, Nemophora, Nemophora tanakai n. sp., Oriental, Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Tam Dao, taxonomy.

MAY/November 2006 Volume 17, Number 1-2

Fratello, S. 2006 (2007). Eurytides and other Costa Rican Osa Peninsula surprises (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 1-5.

Abstract: A possible new subspecies of Eurytides dioxippus (Hewitson) (Papilionidae) found on Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula is illustrated, together with notes on its appearance and behavior. An undescribed Euptychia (Satyrinae) found on Osa (also other Costa Rican localities and Panama), is also illustrated, together with records and field notes on other interesting Osa captures including the rarely collected Cissia gomezi Singer, DeVries & Ehrlich (Satyrinae).

Key words: Amazon, Andes, Bolivia, Brassolinae, Caribbean, Central America, Chusquea, Colombia, distribution, Graphium, Guyana, Ithomiinae, Leptocircini, Lycaenidae, Marantaceae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Nymphalidae, Pacific, Panama, Papilionidae, Peru, Pieridae, Riodinidae, Satyrinae, South America, Sulawesi, Venezuela, Zingiberaceae.

Emmel, T. C. 2006 (2007). A record of Aphrissa neleis in North Florida (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 6.

Schröder, S. 2006 (2007). On the female of Prosotas maputi from the Philippines (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 7-8.

Abstract: The hitherto unknown female of Prosotas maputi Semper, 1889, is described and figured for the first time from a single specimen captured on the Island of Mindoro (Philippines).

Zusammenfassung: Das bislang unbekannte Weibchen von Prosotas maputi Semper, 1889, wird anhand eines einzelnen Exemplares von den Philippinen (Mindoro) erstmals beschrieben und abgebildet.

Key words: Asia, distribution, Mindanao, Mindoro, Nacaduba, Polyommatinae, Southeast Asia, taxonomy.

Orellana B., A. M. 2006 (2007). Notes on the genus Memphis: Hitherto unknown females, new records from Venezuela and comments on M. wellingi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 9-13.

Abstract: The females of Memphis mora (Druce, 1874) (= M. memphis C. & R. Felder, 1867) and M. basilia (Cramer, 1780) are described for the first time with brief diagnoses. Conspecificity of recognized species with the latter two are outlined, but are not formally proposed. Three species are added to the Venezuelan fauna, with provenance from the southern half of the country, elevating the total number in the genus to 28. Finally, the original proposed relationship of M wellingi Miller & Miller, 1976, is discussed, leading to a reconsideration in the structuring of the genus.

Key words: Amazonas, Andes, biogeography, Bolivar, Colombia, Cymatogramma, distribution, Fountainea, Guyana, Mexico, Neotropical, Orinoco, sexual dimorphism, South America, taxonomy, Venezuela.

Heppner, J. B. 2006 (2007). Notes on Iophanus pyrrhias in Guatemala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 14.

Finegan, B. 2006 (2007). Notes on Memphis aulica in Costa Rica, with a description of the female (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 15-18.

Abstract: The taxonomic status of Memphis aulica Röber is reviewed and the female of this species described and illustrated for the first time. It is concluded that in spite of a long history of doubts expressed by several authors, this is a clearly distinct species.

Resumen: Se revisa la situación taxonómica de Memphis aulica Röber y se describe e ilustra por primera vez, la hembra de esta especie. Se concluye que a pesar de una larga historia de dudas expresadas por varios autores, esta es una especie muy bien diferenciada.

Key words: Adelpha, biology, Central America, Chiapas, Chiriquí, Colombia, hostplants, Euphorbiaceae, Guatemala, immature stages, larvae, Lauraceae, Mesoamerica, Mexico, Neotropical, Panama, Piperaceae, taxonomy.

Casagrande, M. M., and O. H. H. Mielke. 2006 (2007). Sobre a bionomia de Eryphanis reevesii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 19-21.

Abstract: The 5th larval instar and pupa of Eryphanis reevesii (Doubleday, [1849]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) are described from material reared in southern Brazil. The caterpillar hostplant is Bambusa vulgaris Schrad (Poaceae).

Key words: biology, Brazil, hostplants, immature stages, larvae, Neotropical, Poaceae, pupae, Santa Catarina, South America.

Heppner, J. B. 2006 (2007). Book Review: Geometrid Moths of the World: A Catalogue (Lepidoptera, Geometridae), edited by M. Scoble. Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 22.

Atkins, A. 2006 (2007). Biology and taxonomic status of the skipper, Mimene wara, from eastern Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 23-26.

Abstract: A female skipper is described from the sub-alpine forests of Mt. Gumi in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Some details of its morphology and life history are illustrated. The specimen is tentatively assigned to the Hesperiinae genus Mimene (Joicey and Talbot) on the basis of adult morphology, and appears closest to the species M. wara (Parsons), known only from the male holotype. Discussion is given on the paucity of material and biological data of Melanesian skipper butterflies resulting in some ill-defined taxonomic placement of genera and species groups. Allied Papuan and Australian genera are compared.

Key words: Anisynta, Arecaceae, Australian, Herimosa, Hesperiinae, Hesperilla, immatures, Kobrona, larvae, Lomandraceae, Melanesia, Mimene, Morobe, Motasingha, Oceania, Oreisplanus, Palmae, Papuan, Plastingia, Prada, Rachelia, Sabera, Suniana, Taractrocera, taxonomy, Telicota, Tiacellia, Trapezitinae.

Rodríguez, M. A., and A. O. Angulo. 2006 (2007). Macromphalia ancilla: Estados imaduros, morfología y biología en Chile (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 27-33.

Abstract: Egg, larva, and pupa of Macromphalia ancilla (Philippi, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and genital structures from the male and female, are described. Life history and biology of this species are given in association with Embathrium coccineum ("notro") and Prunus domestica ("ciruelo"), (Rosaceae).

Resumen: Se describe huevo, larva y pupa de Macromphalia ancilla (Philippi, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) y las estructuras genitales del macho y hembra. Se entrega el ciclo de vida de esta especie en asociación con Embotrium coccineum ("notro") y Prunus domestica ("ciruelo") (Rosaceae).

Key words: Argentina, biology, Chubut, Concepción, egg, genitalia, hostplants, immatures, larva, life history, Neotropical, pupa, Rosaceae, South America, taxonomy.

Heppner, J. B., Bordelon, C., and E. Knudson. 2006 (2007). Trotorhombia metachromata: A tropical crenulate moth new to Florida and Texas (Lepidoptera: Epiplemidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 34.

Tokeshi, M., Yoko-O, M., Daud, J. R. P., and M. Domitis. 2006 (2007). Hypolycaena erylus feeding on mangrove apple and attended by Oecophylla weaver ants, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 17(1-2): 35-36.

Abstract: Larvae of the common hairstreak of the Indo-Pacific tropics, Hypolycaena erylus (Godart), were observed for the first time to feed on the leaves of the mangrove apple, Sonneratia alba (Sonneratiaceae), in the intertidal habitats of Bunaken, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. S. alba appears to be a preferred host plant of H. erylus in mangrove habitats where larvae are attended by the Indo-Australian weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina. Early instars were found in the ants' arboreal nest, while late instars were free-roaming, being attended by the weaver ants.

Key words: Asia, behavior, biology, ecology, Formicidae, Hymenoptera, intertidal habitats, Indo-Pacific, larvae, mangroves, mutualism, ant-lycaenid association, myrmecophily, Rhizophoraceae, Sonneratiaceae.

JUNE 2008 Volume 18, Number 1

Brown, J. W., and F. Komai. 2008. Key to larvae of Castanea-feeding Olethreutinae frequently intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 2-4.

Abstract - At least six species of olethreutine moths are common pests of chestnut (Castanea spp.) outside of the United States. Three are native to, or naturalized in the Mediterranean Region of Europe: Pammene fasciana (L.), Cydia splendana (Hübner) and Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller). Three are native to the Far East: Eucoenogenes aestuosa (Meyrick), Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), and Cydia glandicolana (Danilevsky). Commercial chestnuts imported into the U.S. from these regions are fumigated routinely to prevent entrance of these and other pests. However, larvae of these species frequently are encountered by agricultural inspectors at ports of entry in personal baggage and other cargo. A key to the larvae of these six species is presented, along with summary descriptions and select references on their biology, detection, and control in association with chestnuts.

Key words: chaetotaxy, chestnuts, China, Cydia, distribution, Eucoenogenes, Europe, Fagaceae, Far East, immature stages, India, introductions, invasive species, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, larvae, Nearctic, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pammene, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Turkestan, United Kingdom, Valsaceae.

Furtado, E. 2008. Intergeneric hybridism between Prepona and Agrias (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 5-6.

Abstract - Immature stages, adult and immature behavior, and host plants are described for Protesilaus orthosilaus (Weymer) (Papilionidae, Papilioninae). The female is illustrated for the first time. Larvae were reared on Nectandra gardneri Meissner (Lauraceae).

ReSUMO.- Neste trabalho, descreve se os estágios imaturos, divulga se a planta hospedeira natural e informações etológicas e de distribuição espacial de Protesilaus orthosilaus (Weymer) (Papilionidae, Papilioninae). A fêmea é ilustrada pela primeira vez. As larvas foram criadas em Nectandra gardineri Meissner (Lauraceae).

Key words: Behavior, biology, Brazil, butterflies, Cerrado, defensive behavior, distribution, eggs, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, larvae, larval morphology, Lauraceae, Mato Grosso, morphology, life history, Neotropical, Paraguay, parasitoids, pupae, Rôndonia, South America, voltinism.

Furtado, E. 2008. Protesilaus orthosilaus and its immature stages (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Papilioninae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 7-8.

Abstract - Immature stages, adult and immature behavior, and host plants are described for Protesilaus orthosilaus (Weymer) (Papilionidae, Papilioninae). The female is illustrated for the first time. Larvae were reared on Nectandra gardneri Meissner (Lauraceae).

ReSUMO.- Neste trabalho, descreve se os estágios imaturos, divulga se a planta hospedeira natural e informações etológicas e de distribuição espacial de Protesilaus orthosilaus (Weymer) (Papilionidae, Papilioninae). A fêmea é ilustrada pela primeira vez. As larvas foram criadas em Nectandra gardineri Meissner (Lauraceae).

Key words: Behavior, biology, Brazil, butterflies, Cerrado, defensive behavior, distribution, eggs, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immatures, larvae, larval morphology, Lauraceae, Mato Grosso, morphology, life history, Neotropical, Paraguay, parasitoids, pupae, Rôndonia, South America, voltinism.

Casagrande, M. M., and O. H. H. Mielke. 2008. A note on the life history of Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 9-11.

Abstract - The 5th larval instar and pupa of Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis (C. Felder, 1862) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae) are described from material reared in Southern Brazil. Major foodplant genera are in the Musaceae and Marantaceae. The caterpillar morphology is compared with another Caligo species.

Key words: biology, Brazil, Cannaceae, hostplants, immature stages, larvae, Marantaceae, Musaceae, Neotropical, pupae, Santa Catarina, South America, Zingiberaceae.

Jaroš, J., and K. Spitzer. 2008. Annotated checklist of the butterflies (Papilionidae) of the Nam Cat Tien Reserve (South Vietnam). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 12-16.

Abstract - An annotated list of 143 butterflies (Papilionoidea) of the Nam Cat Tien reserve (southern sector of the Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam) is presented. The importance of the reserve as a regional Indochinese biodiversity hot spot for forest butterflies is stressed.

Key words: Vietnam, Indochina, checklist, Papilionoidea, lowland rainforest, faunal composition, habitat associations, conservation.

Freitas, A. V. L., and K. S. Brown, Jr. 2008. Immature stages of Ithomia salapia ardea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 17-19.

Abstract - The host plant and the immature stages of Ithomia salapia ardea are described. The isolated eggs are laid under mature leaves of Witheringia sp. (Solanaceae). The larvae pass through five instars, the last with a conspicuous ringed pattern (resembling larvae of Methona); the pupae are beige and reflective, very similar to those of other species of Ithomia. The color-pattern of the mature larva of this species is very different from those of the other known species of the genus, suggesting that much additional work on Ithomiinae juveniles should be done before patterns can be generalized.

Resumo - A planta hospedeira e os estágios imaturos de Ithomia salapia ardea são descritos. Os ovos isolados são colocados em folhas maduras de Witheringia sp. (Solanaceae). As larvas passam por cinco estádios, com o último apresentando um padrão de anéis conspícuo (lembrando larvas de Methona); as pupas são de cor bege brilhante, muito similares àquelas de outras espécies de Ithomia. O padrão de coloração da larva madura desta espécie é muito diferente do das outras espécies conhecidas do gênero, sugerindo que muito trabalho adicional deve ser feito com imaturos de Ithominae antes que padrões gerais possam ser generalizados.

Key words: Brazil, Ithomia, Ithomiinae, life-cycle, Nymphalidae, Solanaceae.

Travassos, M. A., DeVries, P. J., and N. E. Pierce. 2008. A novel organ and mechanism for larval sound production in butterfly caterpillars: Eurybia elvina (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 20-23.

Abstract - Eurybia elvina larvae produce substrate-borne vibrations by grating a cervical membrane studded with teeth against hemispherical protuberances scattered along the surface of the head.

Key words: Alesa, ants, Arhopala, behavior, Central America, Eurybiini, Formicidae, hostplants, Hymenoptera, immature stages, Jalmenus, larvae, larval behavior, Lemoniadini, life history, Lycaenidae, Marantaceae, Mimocastnia, Mesoamerica, morphology, myrmecophily, Neotropical, Nymphidiini, Panama.

Mathew, J., Travassos, M. A., Canfield, M. R., Murawski, D. A., Kitching, R. L., and N. E. Pierce. 2008. The singing reaper: diet, morphology and vibrational signaling in the nearctic species Feniseca tarquinius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Miletinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 24-29.

Abstract - A survey at fourteen sites in Eastern North America of populations of the carnivorous lycaenid butterfly, Feniseca tarquinius, confirmed that the sole prey item on Alnus rugosa (Betulaceae) for this species in these regions was Paraprociphilus tessellatus (Homoptera: Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae). Overwhelmingly, these aphids were tended by ants in the subfamily Formicinae. These results are compiled with all earlier records of prey aphids, their host plants and attendant ants for this species. SEM examination of a 4th instar larva of F. tarquinius supported Cottrell's (1984) observation that the dorsal nectary organ and tentacle organs are absent in the 4th instar of virtually all Miletinae. Larvae of F. tarquinius were found to produce substrate-borne vibrations that possess a long pulse length and narrow bandwidth when compared with other lycaenid calls. The possible function of these calls is briefly discussed.

Resumen - Un estudio llevado a cabo en poblaciones de la mariposa carnívora Feniseca tarquinius (Lycaenidae) provenientes de 14 localidades del Este de Norte America confirma que la única presa consumida por esta especie sobre Alnus rugosa (Betulaceae) en estas regiones es Paraprociphilus tessellatus (Homoptera: Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae). La gran mayoría de estos áfidos es atendida por hormigas en la subfamilia Formicidae. Estos resultados ha sido analizados junto con observaciones para esta especie relativas a áfidos presa, plantas hospedadoras y hormigas asociadas compiladas anteriormente. Observaciones realizadas en la larva del cuarto estadío mediante un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) apoyó la observación de Cottrell (1984) que indica que el órgano productor de nectar ubicado dorsalmente y los organos tentáculos estan ausentes en el cuarto estadio larval de practicamente todas las Miletinae. Se encontró que las larvas del cuarto estadio producen vibraciones transmitidas a traves del sustrato que se caracterizan por presentar una gran longitud de pulso y pequeña amplitud de banda comparadas con llamadas emitidas por otras Lycaenidae. Se discute brevemente la posible función de estas llamadas.

Key words: Larval behavior, life history, carnivory, Betulaceae, Homoptera, Formicinae, Syrphidae, Neuroptera, Taraka.

Freitas, A. V. L. 2008. Description of the early stages of Leucidia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 30-31.

Abstract - The host plant and the immature stages of Leucidia brephos and Leucidia elvina are described. The isolated eggs are laid under mature leaves of Senna spp. (Leguminosae). The larvae pass through four instars, with the last being somewhat different in the two species studied; the pupae are green, narrow and elongated, similar to those of Phoebis and Eurema. The immatures of Leucidia confirms the placement of this genus within the Coliadinae.

Resumo - A planta hospedeira e os estágios imaturos de Leucidia brephos e Leucidia elvina são descritos. Os ovos isolados são colocados em folhas maduras de Senna spp. (Leguminosae). As larvas passam por quatro estádios, com o último sendo diferente entre as duas espécies estudadas; as pupas são de cor verde e são estreitas e alongadas, muito similares àquelas de espécies de Phoebis e Eurema. Os estágios imaturos de Leucidia confirmam a posição deste gênero entre os Coliadinae.

Key words: Brazil, Coliadinae, Leucidia, Neotropics, Pieridae.

Ballmer, G. R. 2008. Life history of Purlisa gigantea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenida, Theclini) in south Thailand. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 32-39.

Abstract - The immature stages of Purlisa gigantea gigantea (Distant, 1881) are described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae of P. gigantea were found feeding on Helixanthera cylindrica (Jack) Dans. (Loranthaceae) in southern Thailand. Chaetotaxy of first instar larvae is described in detail to facilitate phylogenetic analysis and comparison with other lycaenid taxa.

Key words: Anthene emolus, Helixanthera cylindrica, Hypolycaena erylus, Tajuria cippus, chaetotaxy.

Sourakov, A., and T. C. Emmel. 2008. Life history and karyology of Paralasa nepalica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 40-42.

Abstract - Partial life history and dividing chromosomes are described and illustrated for a rare highland satyrine from Nepal, Paralasa nepalica Paulus. These characters, heretofore unknown for the genus Paralasa, are discussed in the context of the modern perception of the phylogenetic position of the genus.

Key words: chromosome, egg, Erebia, Erebiina, evolution, karyology, larva, morphology, Nepal, Nymphalidae, Paralasa, systematics, Satyrinae, Ypthima, Ypthimina, Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Garraway, E., Davis, H. A., Snyder, N., and A. J. A. Bailey. 2008. New populations of the Jamaican giant swallowtail, Papilio (Pterourus) homerus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 43-45.

Abstract - New localities were recorded for the endangered swallowtail butterfly, Papilio (Pterourus) homerus (Papilionidae) in western Jamaica. This has important implications for the survival of the species.

Key words: Endangered species, Cockpit Country.

Willmott, K. R., and G. Lamas. 2008. A revision of Megoleria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 46-59.

Abstract - The ithomiine genus Megoleria Constantino is revised. The genus contains two species, each with three subspecies, of which one, Megoleria orestilla polylla n. ssp., is described and named here. We discuss the morphological characteristics of the genus, review its systematics, designate lectotypes for four names, and summarize the biology of each of its constituent taxa. The immature stages of Megoleria orestilla (Hewitson), feeding on Drymonia urceolata Wiehler, are described for the first time.

Key words: Andes, cloud forest, Hyposcada, immature stages, Megoleria orestilla polylla n. ssp., mimicry, Neotropical, Oleria.

Callaghan, C. J. 2008. The biology of Rhamma arria in Colombia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 60-61.

Abstract - I present and discuss the immature biology of Rhamma arria (Hewitson, 1870), an Andean lycaenid from Bogotá, Colombia. The foodplant is Tibouchina semidecandra Cogn. (Melastomataceae).Two larval color morphs are found in this species, determined by the parts of the foodplant upon which the larvae feed. The larval stage lasts 38 days from oviposition to pupation.

Key words: Andean Region, South America, ovipositing behavior.

DECEMBER 2008 Volume 18 No. 2

Matthews, D. L., and B. Landry. 2008. Description of a new species of Exelastis (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) from the Neotropics, with keys to adults of the four species occurring in Florida. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 62-69.

Abstract: A new species of Exelastis Meyrick, 1908 is described from Florida, Grand Bahama Island, and Belize. Images of adults and keys are provided for the four Exelastis species occurring in Florida. Descriptions and illustrations of the male and female genitalia of this new species and for E. rhynchosiae (Dyar) are included, the female of the latter published for the first time.

Key words: Bahamas, Belize, Desmodium, Exelastini, Fabaceae, Fuscoptilia, legume feeders, Leguminosae, Marasmarcha, Platyptiliinae, plume moth, Pterophorinae, Pterophoroidea, Rhynchosia, Tomotilus, U.S.A.

Daniels, J. C., Rodriguez, E., and J. C. Whelan. 2008. The biology and immature stages of Panacea procilla lysimache (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from Costa Rica, with the report of a new locality record. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 70-73.

Abstract: Descriptions of the immature stages of Panacea procilla lysimache are presented, along with new locality records for this butterfly and its larval host plant in Costa Rica. Basic natural history, larval behavior, larval host use, and the distribution of Panacea procilla lysimache are discussed.

Key words: Batesia, biology, Caryodendron, Euphorbiaceae, Guanacaste, host plants, immature stages, larvae, Neotropical, Nicaragua, pupae.

Freitas, A. V. L., and K. S. Brown, Jr. 2008. Immature stages of Vila emilia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Biblidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 74-77.

Abstract - The host plant and the immature stages of Vila emilia (Cramer, 1779) are described for the first time. Eggs are laid singly and are white and pilose. The larvae feed on Dalechampia cf. brevipedunculata Ule, pass through five instars, and are similar to those of other Biblidina and Eurytelina; pupal wing cases project laterally similarly to those of Biblis Fabricius, 1807. Description of immature stages of species in the subtribes Biblidina and Eurytelina is an important step towards better understanding the relationships within this group.

Resumo - A planta hospedeira e os estágios imaturos de Vila emilia (Cramer, 1779) são descritos pela primeira vez. Os ovos, colocados isoladamente, são brancos e pilosos. As larvas passam por cinco instares, e são similares àquelas de outros Biblidina e Eurytelina; as pupas possuem as capas alares expandidas lateralmente semelhantes às pupas de Biblis Fabricius, 1807. A descrição dos estágios imaturos das espécies das subtribos Biblidina e Eurytelina é um passo importante para uma melhor compreensão das relações dentro deste grupo.

Key words: Brazil, Biblidinae, Dalechampia cf. brevipedunculata, life-cycle, Nymphalidae, Vila azeca.

Bustos, E. O. N. 2008. Diversidad de mariposas diurnas en la reserve privada Yacutinga, provincia de Misiones, Argentina (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 78-87.

Abstract: An inventory of the Rhopalocera species is presented in an attempt to disseminate the knowledge of diurnal butterflies of the Yacutinga Private Reserve - an area of high biodiversity in the Argentine Atlantic rainforest. The inventory was conducted during 12 collecting sessions between 2002 to 2008. A checklist is given, including 572 species, with 74 new records for Argentina, which represents the largest list for any site in Argentina. A new undescribed subspecies of Myscelus pardalina (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867), is illustrated for the first time. The results of the survey are compared with similar surveys in the south of Brazil.

Key words: Atlantic rainforest, conservation, diversity, endangered species, Hesperiidae, Myscelus, Misiones, Neotropical, species richness, unrecorded species.

Lewis, D. S., and C. V. Covell, Jr. 2008. Revision of Cyllopoda (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae: Cyllopodini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 88-101.

Abstract: Morphological taxonomic techniques were used in the review of the genus Cyllopoda, leading to: four new synonymies, Cyllopoda versicolor of Cyllopoda breviplaga, Cyllopoda claudicula catabathmus of Bombyx claudicula, Cyllopoda ovata and Cyllopoda protmeta eurychoma of Phalaena osiris; resurrection to species level of Phalaena osiris; use of new combinations Cyllopoda osiris osiris and Cyllopoda osiris protmeta; designation of a neotype for Phalaena osiris; designation of lectotypes for Cyllopoda angusta, Bombyx claudicula, Cyllopoda claudicula catabathmus, Cyllopoda puta, and Chrysauge postica; and designation of paralectotypes for Cyllopoda angusta, Bombyx claudicula, Cyllopoda puta, and Chrysauge postica.

Key words: lectotype, neotype, new combination, paralectotype, synonym

Austin, G. T. 2008. Riodinidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Calephelis, with descriptions of new species. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 102-112.

Abstract: Six species of Calephelis are known from central Rondônia, Brazil, including Calephelis aymaran and five species, distinguished largely by their genital morphology, named and described as new herein. These fly mostly during the wet season.

Key words: disturbance, genitalia, Lepidoptera, neotropical, Perú, South America, variation.

Ramadan, M. M., Markin, G. P., and M. W. Johnson. 2008. Field biology of Pyrausta perelegans (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): a flower bud-feeder on Passiflora mollissima, an invasive vine in Hawaiian forests. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 113-121.

Abstract: This study is a continuation of efforts to monitor a population of the biological control agent, Pyrausta perelegans Hampson (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which specializes on the flower buds of the forest invasive vine Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K.) Bailey. Post-establishment studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of P. perelegans and factors affecting its colonization potential shortly after its establishment in the Olaa rain forest, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (1800 m elevation), island of Hawaii. Moth population growth was monitored over a period of 16 months using a UV light trap. The moth appeared during months of 1992-1993, with a maximum population build-up during May (0.67 moth/night) and October (0.6 moth/night) of 1992. In March and May of 1993 the moth population peaked at an average of 0.4 moth/night. Mean moth catch per night during the two years was not significantly different. Overall mean percentage of vines infested with eggs of P. perelegans was 5.5% with a mean of 4.7 eggs per vine. Most of the eggs (75%) were deposited on the underside of young leaves with midrib lengths ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 cm. The overall percentage of egg parasitism by Trichogramma chilonis Ishii was 9.2%. Mean larval infestations were 7.5%, 2.0%, and 0.4% in small to medium buds (<1 - 6 cm), large buds (7 - 11 cm), and opened flowers (11 ->15 cm), respectively. Infestation was significantly higher in small to medium buds than large buds or opened flowers. No larval parasitism was observed in Olaa rain forest during this study. However, parasitoids recovered from other local Lepidoptera developed successfully in P. perelegans larvae in the laboratory. Laboratory and field observations on feeding behavior and establishment status in other areas on the Hawaiian islands are also reported.

Key words: Passiflora mollissima; Pyrausta perelegans; classical biological control; forest weed; insect colonization; Hawaii.

Warren, A. D. 2008. Book Review: The Butterflies of Venezuela. Part 2: Nymphalidae II (Acraeinae, Libytheinae, Nymphalinae, Ithomiinae, Morphinae). A comprehensive guide to the identification of adult Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae, by Andrew F. E. Neild (2008). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 122-123.

Willmott, K. R. 2008. Book Review: Catalogue of the Hostplants of the Neotropical Butterflies / Catálogo de las Plantas Huésped de las Mariposas Neotropicales, by Beccaloni, G. W., Viloria, A. L., Hall, S. K. & Robinson, G. S. (2008). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(2): 124-125.

JUNE 2009 Volume 19, No. 1

Park, K.-T. 2009. Two new species of the genus Tisis Walker and Synersaga Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from Thailand. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 1-3.

Abstract.- Two new species of the genera Tisis Walker and Synersaga Gozmány, belonging to the subfamily Lecithocerinae, are described from Thailand. The new species are: Tisis gloriosa sp. nov., Synersaga phuruaensis sp. nov. Photos of adults and male genitalia of the new species are given.

Key words: Taxonomy, Lecithocerinae, description, Oriental Region

Agassiz, D. J. L., and D. M. Harper. 2009. The Macrolepidoptera fauna of Acacia in the Kenyan Rift Valley (Part 1). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 4-8.

Abstract: Acacia (s.l.) spp. are the dominant natural woody plants in the Kenyan Rift Valley, the exact species depending upon the altitude and water table. Lakes, in particular, support relatively thick fringing woodland, from which Lepidoptera have been collected, reared and identified. The significance of Acacia woodlands for biodiversity is discussed.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, larvae, Acacia, Kenya, Rift Valley, Naivasha, Elmenteita, Bogoria, Baringo

Agassiz, D. J. L. 2009. The Macrolepidoptera fauna of Acacia in the Kenyan Rift Valley (Part 2 - description of new species). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 9-17.

Abstract: Six new species of Lepidoptera bred from Acacia in the Kenyan Rift Valley are described, and a further six illustrated, with taxonomic notes.Keywords: Lepidoptera, larvae, Acacia, Kenya, Rift Valley, Naivasha, Elmenteita, Bogoria, Baringo

Freitas, A. V. L., Kaminski, L. A., Mattos, R. G., and K. L. Silva-Brandão. 2009. Immature stages of the Andean butterfly Actinote rufina (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 18-21.

Abstract - The early stages of Actinote rufina Oberthür, 1917, an uncommon species occurring on the east Andean slopes from Ecuador to southern Peru, are described from a population found on the road to Alfamayo, Cuzco, Peru, in September 2008. Immature stage morphological characters are compared to those found in other species of Actinote.Resumo - Os estágios imaturos de Actinote rufina Oberthür, 1917, uma espécie pouco comum que ocorre nas encostas orientais dos Andes desde o Equador ao sul do Peru, foram descritos a partir de uma população encontrada na estrada para Alfamayo, em setembro de 2008. Os caracteres dos imaturos foram comparados àqueles encontrados em outras espécies de Actinote.

Key words: Acraeini, Actinote, Actinote rufina, life-cycle, Nymphalidae, Peru.

Sáfián, S., and T. B. Larsen. 2009. On the ecology and behavior of Cerautola crowleyi (Sharpe, 1890), Cerautola ceraunia (Hewitson, 1873) and Cerautola miranda (Staudinger, 1889) with descriptions of early stages (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Epitolini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 22-28.

Abstract - Very little is known about the ecology and behavior of the strictly African Cerautola species (Lycaenidae: Epitolini). Nearly nothing has been published about their early stages until now. This paper summarizes the results of a study of three species of the genus from Ghana, including descriptions of their myrmecophilous relationship with Crematogaster ant hosts. Detailed descriptions of the early stages are presented here for the first time.

Key words: Ecology, behavior, early stages, myrmecophily, Cerautola crowleyi, C. ceraunia, C. miranda, Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Epitolini. Formicidae, Crematogaster.

Austin, G. T. 2009. Nymphalidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Variation and phenology of Agrias (Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 29-34.

Abstract: Two species of Agrias (Nymphalidae: Charaxiinae), A. claudina and A. amydon, are known from central Rondônia, Brazil. Their phenology and variation are discussed and illustrated.

Key words: Agrias, Lepidoptera, neotropical, phenology, variation.

Ferguson, D. C. 2009. A revision of the red-brown caberine geometrids of the southeastern United States (Geometridae: Caberini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 35-51.

Abstract: Seven species of the ennomine tribe Caberini in the southern United States are revised and assigned to four genera; namely, Ilexia, n. gen., Parilexia, n. gen., Covellia, n. gen., and Episemasia Hulst, 1896. Parilexia antilleata and Covellia procrastinata are described as new species. Other taxonomic changes or actions include: three type species designations; referral of 20 previously proposed names for neotropical species to the new genera as new combinations; three instances of new synonymy; four instances of revised status, these being species removed from synonymy and reinstated as distinct species; and designation of three lectotypes. An identification key is provided for seven red-brown species of Caberini in the eastern United States; and the larvae of Ilexia intractata (Walker, [1863]) and Episemasia solitaria (Walker, 1861), both reared on American holly, Ilex opaca Aiton (Aquifoliaceae), are described for the first time.

Key words: Caribbean Geometridae, new taxa, larvae, host plants, American holly.

Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. 2009. Two new species of Euselasia (Riodinidae: Euselasiinae) from western Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 52-55.

Abstract.- Two new species in the genus Euselasia Hübner, [1819] are described from western Ecuador. Euselasia nytua Hall & Willmott n. sp. is currently known only from northwestern Ecuador. It seems to be the sister species to the widespread Amazonian species E. mirania (Bates, 1868). Euselasia jocotoco Hall & Willmott n. sp. is known to range from central Panama to northwestern Ecuador. Its phylogenetic affinities are less certain, although we suggest that E. gyda (Hewitson, 1860) is a close relative.

Key words: Central America, Chocó, Colombia, Ecuador, endemism, Euselasia, Panama, South America, taxonomy

Angulo, A. O., and T. S. Olivares. 2009. Scientific note: The real larva of Castnia eudesmia (Lepidoptera: Castniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 56-57.

Abstract: A description of the larval stage of the bromeliad base borer, Castnia eudesmia is provided. This paper corrects the previous description for this species, which mistakenly was based on a saturniid larva.

Key words: Adetomeris erythrops, Bromeliaceae, chaetotaxy, Chile, larval morphology, Neotropical, Puya chilensis, Saturniidae, South America, Ormiscodes marginata

Garraway, E., Murphy, C. P., and G.-A. Allen. 2009. Scientific note: Papilio demoleus (The Lime Swallowtail) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), a potential pest of citrus, expanding its range in the Caribbean. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 58-59.

Abstract- This is the third (see Homziak & Homziak 2006) record of Papilio demoleus L. from Americas. The species is a well known pest of citrus from the Far East and was first recorded from the Dominican Republic in 2004. P. demoleus is now well established in most Jamaican parishes and is a minor pest in citrus nurseries.

Key words: Heraclides andraemon, introduced species, Jamaica.

DECEMBER 2009 Volume 19, No. 2

Sohn, J.-C., and K.-T. Park. 2009. A new species of Wockia Heinemann, 1870 (Lepidoptera: Urodidae) from Vietnam. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 62-63.

Abstract: Wockia variata n. sp. based on a single specimen is described from Tam Dao National Park in Northeastern Vietnam. It is one of two species of Wockia known from the Oriental Region. Photos of the adult and illustrations of male genitalia are provided.

Key words: Southeast Asia, Tam Dao National Park, Taxonomy, Urodoidea, Wockia, Vietnam.

Matthews, D. L., and B. V. Maharajh. 2009. Adaina primulacea Meyrick, 1929: A gall-inducing plume moth of Siam Weed from South Florida and the Neotropics (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 64-70.

Abstract- The life history of Adaina primulacea Meyrick is described and illustrated. Larvae induce formation of stem galls on Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H. Rob., and feed and pupate within these galls. This neotropical species was discovered in South Florida in 1993 and has since been exported for biological control studies. The identity of the species is established in this paper by comparison of reared specimens with images of the holotype from Panama. The female genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time.

Key words: cecidogenous, Chromolaena odorata, Eupatorium cannabinum, Siam Weed, Asteraceae, stem galls, Adaina primulacea, A. microdactyla, A. simplicius, A. bipunctata, biological control, larvae, pupae, Pterophoroidea, Pterophorinae

Núñez Bustos, E. O. 2009. Mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea Y Hesperioidea) del Parque Nacional Iguazu, Provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 71-81.

Abstract.- An updated list of 653 species is reported for Iguazú National Park and surroundings based on 12 years of study, bibliographic information and data from several public and private entomological collections. This is the first published list of butterflies from an area known for its richness and abundance of species, particularly the Iguazú Falls area, for which, surprisingly, there only exist partial lists or isolated citations of species in scattered publications. Six new species for the Argentinean fauna are reported. The diversity of the area is compared to that of other protected areas in Misiones and southern Brazil. The area is important as a refuge of many species only present in this area of the country, despite suffering increasing threat from urbanization and fragmentation of the remaining forest areas close to the park.

Key words: Lepidoptera, checklist, Atlantic rainforest, conservation, butterflies, biodiversity survey

Freitas, A. V. L., Francini, R. B., and T. S. Souza. 2009. Immature stages and natural history of the threatened butterfly Actinote quadra (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 82-88.

Abstract - The early stages, food plant and behavior of Actinote quadra (Schaus, 1902), a threatened, high-elevation species from southeastern Brazil, are described from Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. Immature stage morphological characters are compared to those of other Actinote species.

Resumo - Os estágios imaturos, a planta hospedeira e o comportamento de Actinote quadra (Schaus, 1902), uma espécie ameaçada que ocorre nas montanhas altas do Sudeste do Brasil, foram descritos em Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. Os caracteres morfológicos dos imaturos foram comparados àqueles encontrados em outras espécies de Actinote.

Key words: Acraeini, Actinote, Actinote quadra, life-cycle, Nymphalidae.

Casagrande, M., Penz, C., and P. J. DeVries. 2009. Description of early stages of Chorinea licursis (Fabricius) (Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 89-93.

Abstract: The early stages of Chorinea licursis (Fabricius, 1775) are described and illustrated. Larvae feed on Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). We compare the fifth instar and pupa of C. licursis to closely related species, and provide observations on wing color variation in adult Chorinea.

Key words: Maytenus, Celastraceae, egg, larva, pupa, riodinid butterfly, Ancyluris, Rhetus, Necyria, Chorinea octauius

Becker, V. O. 2009. Clemira, a new genus of South American Agaristinae moths (Noctuidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 94-97.

Abstract: Clemira gen. n. is proposed to include six species of South American Agaristinae: C. magnifica (Schaus), comb. n., C. hilzingeri (Berg), comb. n., C. schausi (Jörgensen), comb. n., C. dolens (Druce), comb. n., C. trita (Druce), comb. n. and C. sororcula sp. n., from Bolivia. One synomym is established: Aucula hilzingeri var. albirubra Köhler (=C. schausi (Jörgensen), syn. n., and lectotypes are designated for the following species: Heterocampa dolens Druce, Metagarista hilzingeri Berg, Euthysanotia magnifica Schaus, Aucula schausi Jörgensen and Erocha trita Druce. A key and illustrations to enable their recognition are also included.

Key words: Agaristinae, South America, new taxa, taxonomy.

Resumo - Clemira, um gênero novo de mariposas Agaristinae (Noctuidae) sul americanas. Clemira gen. n. é proposto para incluir seis espécies de Agaristinae da América do Sul: C. magnífica (Schaus), comb. n., C. hilzingeri (Berg), comb. n., C. schausi (Jörgensen), comb. n., C. dolens (Druce), comb. n., C. trita (Druce), comb. n. and C. sororcula sp. n., da Bolivia. Um sinônimo é estabelecido: Aucula hilzingeri var. albirubra Köhler (=C. schausi (Jörgensen), syn. n., e lectótipos são designados para as seguintes especies: Heterocampa dolens Druce, Metagarista hilzingeri Berg, Euthysanotia magnifica Schaus, Aucula schausi Jörgensen and Erocha trita Druce. É também incluída uma chave e ilustrações para permitir o reconhecimento das espécies.

Palavras chave: Agaristinae, América do Sul, novos taxa, taxonomia.

Thöny, H. 2009. 14. Beitrag zur heterocera-fauna Brasiliens: revision derneuweltlichen vertreter der gattung Oraesia Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae: Calpinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 98-112.

Abstract: Five new species, and one new subspecies, O. poteensis sp. n., O. sapucayai sp. n., O. brunnerae sp.n., O. silleri sp.n., O. cidae sp.n. and O. subucula badofszkyi ssp.n., are described. The Lectotypes for Oraesia aeneofusa (Hampson, 1926), Oraesia excitans (Walker, [1858]), Oraesia striolata (Schaus, 1911), Oraesia stupenda Dognin, 1912, and Oraesia serpens (Schaus, 1898) are designated. Oraesia igneceps (Hampson, 1926) syn.n. is a synonym to O. argyrolampra (Hampson, 1926). Oraesia honesta (Walker, [1858]) syn.n. is a synonym to O. excitans (Walker, [1858]) .

Zusammenfassung - Fünf neue Arten, O. poteensis sp.n., O. sapucayai sp.n., O. brunnerae sp.n., O. silleri sp.n., O. cidae sp.n. und eine neue Unterart O. subucula badofszkyi ssp.n., werden beschrieben . Die Lectotypen für Oraesia aeneofusa (Hampson, 1926), Oraesia excitans (Walker, [1858]), Oraesia striolata (Schaus, 1911) , Oraesia stupenda Dognin, 1912, und Oraesia serpens (Schaus, 1898), werden hier festgelegt. Oraesia igneceps (Hampson, 1926) syn.n. wird als Synonym zu Oraesia argyrolampra (Hampson, 1926) erkannt. Oraesia honesta (Walker, [1858]) syn.n. wird als Synonym zu O. excitans (Walker, [1858]) gestellt.

Resumo - Cinco especies e um subespecies nova sendo O. poteensis sp.n., O. sapucayai sp.n., O. brunnerae sp.n., O. silleri sp.n., O. cidae sp.n. e O. subucula badofszkyi ssp.n.. Sao definidos os seguintes Lectotipos, Oraesia aeneofusa (Hampson, 1926), Oraesia excitans (Walker,[1858] ), Oraesia striolata (Schaus, 1911), Oraesia stupenda Dognin, 1912, e Oraesia serpens (Schaus, 1898) . Oraesia igneceps (Hampson, 1926) syn.n. e identificado como sinonimo de Oraesia argyrolampra (Hampson, 1926). Oraesia honesta (Walker,[1858]), syn.n. e identificado como sinonimo de Oraesia excitans (Walker, [1858]) .

Keywords: Noctuidae, Oraesia, Calpinae, Neotropical region, new species, new subspecies sp.n. ssp.n. syn. n., lectotype designations.

Miller, J. Y., and A. Sourakov. 2009. Scientific note: Some observations on Amauta cacica procera (Boisduval) (Castniidae: Castniinae) in Costa Rica. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 113-114.

Key words: behavior, foraging, Corybantes dolopia, day flying, Heliconia, Heliconiaceae, Lepidoptera, moth, Neotropical, pollen feeding.

Sourakov, A. 2009. Scientific note: On the immature stages of citrus-feeding butterflies of Hispaniola. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 115-117.

Key words: Dominican Republic, Eantis papinianus, Heraclides pelaus, Heraclides androgeus, Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera, larva, Neotropical, Papilionidae.

Turner, T., Turland, V., and D. Newell. 2009. Scientific note: Astraptes talus in Jamaica, West Indies (Hesperiidae: Eudaminae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(2): 118-121.

Abstract: The occurrence, distribution and notes on the biology of Astraptes talus (Cramer) in Jamaica are discussed. Mucuna pruriens (L) DC (Fabaceae) is recorded as a local native larval food plant.

Key words: Jamaica, early collecting records, Eudaminae, Fabaceae, Mucuna, immature stages, parishes, distribution.

JUNE 2010 Volume 20, No. 1

Canfield, M. R., and N. E. Pierce. 2010. Facultative mimicry? The evolutionary significance of seasonal forms in several Indo-Australian butterflies in the family Pieridae. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 1-7.

Abstract- Several Asian pierid butterflies exhibit a pattern of phenotypic plasticity whereby the wing surfaces are more melanized in the wet season than in the dry season. The wet season in the Indo-Australian regions where these species occur is warmer, so this pattern cannot be explained as an adaptation for thermoregulation. We propose an alternative hypothesis of facultative mimicry to explain this pattern. Species in the aposematic pierid genus Delias are widespread through Indo-Australia, and feed on host plants that are assumed to be toxic. The wet season forms of pierid species such as Appias lyncida, Prioneris thestylis and Cepora nerissa have darkened wing patterns that make them likely mimics of Delias species. Other species such as Ixias pyrene also have a wet season pattern that may benefit from its resemblance to Delias species. This hypothesis could be tested with experiments on the differential success of the seasonal forms under varying conditions. Facultative mimicry may represent a previously undocumented means by which insects can adjust their participation in mimetic relationships by using cues from their environment.

Key words: phenotypic plasticity, polyphenism, Pieridae, dry season, wet season, mimicry, crypsis, visual selection, adaptation

Greeney, H. F., Pyrcz, T. W., Dyer, L. A., Sánchez Z., M., and T. R. Walla. 2010. The early stages and natural history of Corades medeba Hewitson, 1850 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 8-13.

Abstract- The early stages are not described for any species of Corades Doubleday 1849. We describe the immature stages of Corades medeba Hewitson 1850 from northeastern Ecuador. Chusquea cf. scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly or in clusters of up to 11 on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. The life cycle from egg to adult lasts 95-106 days. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males guard perches near areas of food plant, usually in sunny areas or forest edges.

Resumen- No existen hasta este momento descripciones de los inmaduros para ninguna especie del género Corades Doubleday 1849. En este trabajo describimos los estados inmaduros de Corades medeba Hewitson 1850 en el noreste de Ecuador. Chusquea cf. scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) es la planta hospedera. La hembra pone huevos uno por uno o en grupos de hasta 11 unidades en el envés de las hojas maduras. El ciclo de vida dura de 95 a 106 días. Los adultos pueden ser encontrados más fácilmente en días soleados sobrevolando áreas dominadas por sus plantas hospederas, o cuando se alimentan de los excrementos de mamíferos en el suelo. Los machos establecen territorios generalmente situados cerca de las plantas hospederas, en zonas limítrofes a los claros del bosque.

Key words: Andes, bamboo, Chusquea, cloud forest, egg, larva, Poaceae, pupa.

Checa, M. F., Velasco, N., and H. Mogollón. 2010. New distributional records for nymphalid species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) for the Chocó Region and western Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 14-18.

Abstract- Butterflies were collected using traps baited with fermented shrimp at the Río Canandé Reserve in Esmeraldas, northwestern Ecuador, one of the last remnants of tropical wet forests in the Chocó biogeographic region of Ecuador. We recorded one species not previously reported from Ecuador, Opsiphanes zelotes zelotes, and two species not previously reported from the Chocó region, Adelpha naxia naxia and Eunica orphise. In addition, we provide new distributional data for several species that are known from very few localities in western Ecuador, including: Memphis artacaena, M. anna elina, Prepona gnorima jordani, Adelpha hesterbergi, A. heraclea heraclea, A. basiloides and A. barnesia leucas.

Key words: Chocó Region, new records, northwestern Ecuador, Nymphalidae.

Hall, J. P. W., and D. H. Ahrenholz. 2010. A new species of Alesa (Riodinidae: Eurybiini) from eastern Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 19-22.

Abstract- A new riodinid species in the tribe Eurybiini, Alesa suzana Ahrenholz & Hall n. sp., is described from the lowlands of eastern Ecuador. The new species appears to be sister to the widespread Amazonian species A. telephae (Boisduval, 1836). Based on the study of external morphology and male genitalia, a new species-group classification is proposed for Alesa Doubleday, 1847. The genus is divided into the amesis, telephae, and prema groups.

Key words: Alesa, Amazon, Ecuador, Eurybiini, Riodinidae, South America, taxonomy

Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. 2010. A new species of Dynamine Hübner, [1819] from northwestern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 23-27.

Abstract- A new nymphalid species in the subfamily Biblidinae, Dynamine chiquita Willmott & Hall n. sp., is described from northwestern Ecuador. Dynamine chiquita is known to date from only three female specimens collected along a 30 m section of dirt road in the dwindling lowland rainforests of Esmeraldas province. The new species is unique in the genus in having an entirely brown dorsal hindwing in the female, and it is perhaps most closely related to several Amazonian species.

Resumen- Se describe una nueva especie, Dynamine chiquita Willmott & Hall, n. sp., de la subfamilia Biblidinae, familia Nymphalidae del noroccidente del Ecuador. Unicamente se conocen tres especímenes de Dynamine chiquita, todos son hembras y fueron colectados a lo largo de una sección de 30 m de carretera en los remanentes de bosque húmedo tropicale en la provincia de Esmeraldas. Esta especie nueva es la única en el género que tiene una ala posterior dorsal totalmente marrón en la hembra, y ciertas especies amazónicas parecen ser las más cercanamente relacionadas en terminos filogeneticos.

Key words: Dynamine agatha, D. pebana, neotropical region, taxonomy

Matthews, D. L., and J. Y. Miller. 2010. Notes on the Cacao Plume Moth in Honduras and description of the larvae and pupae (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 28-34.

Abstract- Observations on the life history of the Cacao Plume Moth, Michaelophorus nubilus (Felder & Rogenhofer), in Honduras are presented along with diagnoses and images of adults, and the first detailed descriptions and illustrations of the final instar larva and pupa. The species is reported for the first time from Honduras. Larvae are pests of Theobroma cacao L. and feed primarily on developing leaves.

Key words: Pterophoroidea, Pterophorinae, Platyptiliini, Oxyptilus, cocoa, cacao, chocolate, cacauais, cacueiro, pests, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, Theobroma cacao, chaetotaxy, morphology, immatures, Michaelophorus nubilus, M. indentatus, M. dentiger

Salcedo, C. 2010. Evidence of pollen digestion at nocturnal aggregations of Heliconius sara in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 35-37.

Abstract- Several Heliconius butterflies species are known to rely widely on pollen supplied by flowers they visit on a daily basis. Pollen feeding provides a regular supply of amino acids and key nutrients, which are essential for fecundity, de novo synthesis of cyanide glycosides, and increased lifespan. This adaptation has been documented as a diurnal habit that occurs in males and females. Observations in H. sara revealed that only females arrive with pollen loads at dusk to roosting sites in Panama and Costa Rica. Further analysis of pollen samples shows that pollen collected by these females is being digested overnight.

Key words: Heliconius, nocturnal aggregation, pollen feeding

Scientific notes:

Warren, A. D., Whelan, J. C., and T. C. Emmel. 2010. Notes on mate-locating behavior by the skipper Phocides polybius lilea (Reakirt, [1867]) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Eudaminae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 38-40.

Abstract- The mate-locating behavior of males of Phocides polybius lilea (Reakirt, [1867]) is described and illustrated for the first time, from the summit of the Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacán, State of Mexico, Mexico.

Key words: Aggregation, ecology, hilltopping, patrolling, perching, skipper

Austin, G. T. 2010. Moth community from a northcentral Florida location - a taxonomic checklist. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 41-44.

Abstract- Moths were recorded at 2004 se 41st avenue, Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida (29 º 36.95 'n 82 º 17.91'w) between 2005 and 2009. The survey was conducted throughout the year twice per week, using a 15 watt black light. Scientific names are preceded by MONA numbers from the 1983 Checklist of Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico, R. Hodges et al., editors.

Lewis, D. S. 2010. Book Review: Butterflies of Puerto Rico - Las Mariposas de Puerto Rico by Antonio R. Perez-Asso, Julio Genaro, and Orlando H. Garrido (2009). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(1): 45.

DECEMBER 2010 Volume 20, No. 2

Park, K.-T., and C. Wu. 2010. Genus Lecithocera of Thailand Part V, with reports of nine species including six new species (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 62-70.

Abstract: As the 5th part of the serial studies on the genus Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer of Thailand, nine additional species including six new species: L. gilviana sp. nov., L. orbiculata sp. nov., L. tumidosa sp. nov., L. calomerida sp. nov., L. poculata sp. nov., and L. eremiodes sp. nov., are reported in this paper. Three species, L. mylitacha Herrich-Schäffer, L. castanoma Wu, and L. squalida Gozmány, are first reported from Thailand, and the females of them are newly found since the species were described. Images of adults, venation, and the male and female genitalia of the known species are given.

Key words: Taxonomy, Lecithocera, Lecithocerinae, Gelechioidea, morphology, description.

Montero A., F., and M. Ortiz P. 2010. Descripción de los estados immaduros de Morpho rhodopteron nevadensis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 71-76.

Resumen: Se describe por primera vez el ciclo de vida de Morpho rhodopteron (Godman & Salvin, 1880) especie endémica de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta - Colombia. Este presenta una duración total promedio de 199 días desde el momento de la ovoposición hasta la emergencia de los adultos, figurando hasta el momento como el es uno de los ciclos biologicos mas prolongados para los Rhopalocera del Neotropico. La especie está asociada al hospedero Chusquea sp. (Poaceae). Aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento de las larvas como uso de la planta hospedero, actividad nocturna, utilización de las glándulas de acicalamiento, entre otros, son discutidos. Se hace una comparación del ciclo biológico con la especie Morpho sulkowskyi, siendo esta la especie más cercana filogenéticamente en Colombia. Se reportan datos de los adultos en el medio natural.

Palabras Clave: Morpho rhodopteron, Ciclo de vida, Endemismo, larvas, Chusque, Colombia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Conservación.

Abstract: The life cycle of Morpho rhodopteron (Godman & Salvin, 1880), a species endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described for the first time. The species has an average development time of 199 days from oviposition to adult emergence, constituting one of the longest life cycles yet described for any Neotropical butterfly. The species feeds on Chusquea sp. (Poaceae). Larval behavior is described, including hostplant use, nocturnal activity, and use of grooming glands. The life cycle duration is compared with that of Morpho sulkowskyi, the most closely related species in Colombia.Observations are reported for the adults in the natural habitat.

Key words: Chusque, Colombia, conservation, endemism, larva, life cycle, Morpho rhodopteron, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

Hayden, J. E. 2010. Phylogeny, distribution, and description of a Caribbean species of Dicepolia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 77-84.

Abstract- Dicepolia nigritinctalis sp. nov. is described from two female specimens from eastern Cuba and Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is most closely related to D. rufitinctalis (Hampson) or D. aerealis Hayden and occurs on the northern periphery of the range of the genus. Significant range extensions are reported for other species of Dicepolia Snellen across central and southern Brazil. A phylogenetic analysis of Dicepolia with 36 morphological characters, including two quantitative characters, indicates monophyly of the Malagasy and Neotropical groups and within the latter, monophyly of the small- and largebodied species groups.

Key words: Neotropics, distribution, phylogeny, continuous data.

Nakahara, S., and P. Blandin. 2010. A southern range extension for Morpho amathonte Deyrolle, 1860 (Nymphalidae, Morphinae) in western Ecuador and the description of a new subspecies. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 85-87.

Abstract: We report here a record of Morpho amathonte from La Troncal, Cañar, in western Ecuador, representing the southernmost known locality for the species in the country. The Cañar specimens are phenotypically different to those from north-western Ecuador, which are known as Morpho amathonte ecuadorensis Le Moult and Réal, 1962. We therefore describe a new subspecies, Morpho amathonte canyarensis ssp. nov., for the Cañar population.

Cox, J. H., and T. C. Emmel. 2010. Ecological surveys of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Hunstein range, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, emphasizing butterfly populations and habitat in the Mt. Samsai area. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 88-99.

Abstract: Starting with a preliminary survey of Lepidoptera species in March 1998 in the Hunstein Range of Papua New Guinea, a more intensive community-interactive research project was developed in collaboration with two national PNG government agencies and the University of Papua New Guinea. The first phase was carried out during October 2003 with an expedition to the west slope approach to Mt. Samsai, the highest peak (at 1525 m) in the remote Hunstein Range of southern East Sepik Province. More than 111 butterfly taxa were recorded during the 9-22 October 2003 expedition. Habitats and unusual taxa encountered are discussed and illustrated.

Key words: Faunistic survey, biodiversity, local community, sustainable use of resources, conservation.

Freitas, A. V. L., de Proença Barbosa, E., and R. B. Francini. 2010. Immature stages of the butterfly Actinote conspicua (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 100-104.

Abstract - The early stages, food plant and behavior of Actinote conspicua Jordan, 1913, are described from Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brazil. Immature stage morphological characters are compared to those of other Actinote species.

Resumo - Os estágios imaturos, a planta hospedeira e o comportamento de Actinote conspicua Jordan, 1913, foram descritos de material proveniente de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brazil. Os caracteres morfológicos dos imaturos foram comparados àqueles encontrados em outras espécies de Actinote.

Key words: Acraeini, Actinote, Actinote conspicua, life-cycle, Nymphalidae

Larsen, T. B. 2010. Book Review: Les Papillons du Gabon by Gaël R. Vande weghe (2010). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20(2): 105.

JUNE 2011 Volume 21, No. 1

Warren, A. D. 2011. A new species of Atrytonopsis from Jalisco, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae, Hesperiini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 1-6.

Abstract: A new species of Atrytonopsis is described from southwestern Jalisco, Mexico. Based on wing phenotype and morphology of the male genitalia, the new species appears closest to A. cestus, a taxon known from southern Arizona, United States, to central Sonora, Mexico. Notes on the circumstances behind the collection and discovery of this new species are provided, as well as a detailed comparison of the new species to other Atrytonopsis taxa.

Key words: Distribution, endemism, genitalia, insect collection, skipper butterfly

Warren, A. D., and R. G. de la Maza E. 2011. A new species of Dalla from Chiapas, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Heteropterinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 7-11.

Abstract: A new species of Dalla is described from montane cloud forest habitats in southern Chiapas, Mexico. Based on male genitalia and characters of the wings and body, the new species appears to be closest to Dalla steinhauseri, a taxon known from montane cloud forest in eastern Oaxaca, Mexico, although it has been confused with Dalla freemani in the literature.

Key words: Endemism, genitalia, Mesoamerica, morphology, skipper butterfly.

Larsen, T. B., and M. J. W. Cock. 2011. A new species of Eretis (Lepidoptera; Hesperiidae) from Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 11-16.

Abstract- Eretis artorius sp.nov. is described as new from Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, and other specimens are reported from Uganda and Rwanda. It is compared with other species of the genus that co-occur or are likely to co-occur within this range. Living and pinned adults are illustrated. The male genitalia are illustrated and compared with those of Eretis vaga Evans and E. rotundimacula Evans.

Key words: Hesperioidea, Pyrginae, Celaenorrhinini, Kakamega Forest, Eretis artorius sp. nov., Eretis vaga, E. herewardi, E. rotundimacula, E. melania, E.mitiana, E. camerona, E. lugens, Justicia flava, abdominal ventral hair fringe

Davenport, C., and A/ Rawlins. 2011. The true identity of 'Delias sacha gilolensis' Rothschild, 1925 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 17-19.

Abstract- Delias sacha gilolensis Rothschild, 1925 is found to be a synonym of Delias poecilea poecilea Vollenhoven, 1865. Delias sacha Grose Smith, 1895, is therefore endemic to Obi.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Pieridae, Delias, sacha, gilolensis, poecilea, candida, Indonesia, Halmahera, Obi.

Francini, R. B., De Proença Barbosa, E., and A. V. L. Freitas. 2011. Immature stages of the butterfly Actinote zikani (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini), a critically endangered butterfly from southeastern Brazil. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 20-26.

Abstract - The early stages, food plant, and behavior of the endangered species Actinote zikani D'Almeida, 1951, are described from southeastern Brazil, Paranapiacaba, São Paulo. The only recorded host plant is a liana, Mikania obsoleta (Asteraceae). Eggs and larvae are grouped, and general morphology and behavior are similar to those of other species of Actinote. All immature stages are described in detail and compared with other Actinote species.

Resumo - Os estágios imaturos, a planta hospedeira e o comportamento da espécie ameaçada Actinote zikani D'Almeida, 1951, são descritos de material proveniente de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. A única planta hospedeira registrada é a trepadeira Mikania obsoleta (Asteraceae). Os ovos e as larvas são agrupados, e a morfologia geral e comportamento são muito similares aos de outras espécies conhecidas de Actinote. Todos os estágios imaturos são descritos em detalhes e comparados àqueles de outras espécies conhecidas de Actinote.

Key words: Acraeini, life history, Mikania obsoleta, conservation biology.

Bolaños Martinez, I. A., Gonzalez, G. Z., and K. R. Willmott. 2011. Descripción de los estados inmaduros de Pteronymia zerlina zerlina, P. zerlina machay, P. veia florea y P. medellina de Colombia y del Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 27-33.

Resumen: A pesar de que la tribu Ithomiini (Lepidoptera: Danainae: Nymphalidae) tiene una amplia distribución a lo largo del Neotrópico y que están envueltos en complejos miméticos bien estudiados, hay poca información de la biología de muchas de las especies que conforman esta tribu, especialmente las que habitan los Andes. Aquí se suministra información sobre los ciclos de vida y la biología de Pteronymia zerlina zerlina (Hewitson, 1856), P. veia florea Neild, 2008 y P. medellina Haensch, 1905, presentes en la Finca Bellavista, Cajibio, Cauca, Colombia. Como un punto de comparación, incluimos una descripción parcial de los estados inmaduros de P. zerlina machay Racheli & Racheli, 2003, de la Reserva Arcoiris, San Francisco, Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. La duración de los ciclos de vida fue de 38 días para P. zerlina zerlina, de 35 días (instar 2-adulto) para P. zerlina machay, de 45 días para P. veia florea y de 44 días para P. medellina. Se identificó como planta hospedera de P. zerlina zerlina y P. medellina a Solanum aphyodendron Knapp (Solanaceae). Las larvas de ambas especies se encontraron en el envés de las hojas, con larvas gregarias en P. zerlina zerlina y solitarias en P. medellina. Las posturas gregarias de P. veia florea y grupos de larvas gregarias de P. zerlina machay se encontraron en dos especies no identificadas y distintas de Solanum. En el caso de P. veia, la mayoría de las puestas fueron encontradas en las hojas de la parte basal, con mayor madurez de la planta. El fenotipo de la larva de P. zerlina zerlina fue bastante diferente al fenotipo de P. zerlina machay, y nuestros resultados sugieren que P. zerlina zerlina, y probablemente otras subespecies occidentales, son de una especie distinta a los taxones llamada P. zerlina de los Andes orientales. Si es así, el nombre Pteronymia alina Haensch, 1909 es el más viejo para un taxon de los Andes orientales.

Palabras claves: ciclos de vida, Danainae, Ithomiini, Pteronymia, Solanum, Solanaceae

Abstract- Although the tribe Ithomiini (Lepidoptera: Danainae: Nymphalidae) is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics and involved in now relatively well-studied mimicry complexes, there is little information on the biology of many species, especially those inhabiting the Andes. This study provides information on the immature life cycle of Pteronymia zerlina zerlina (Hewitson, 1856), P. veia florea Neild, 2008, and P. medellina Haensch, 1905, from Finca Bellavista, Cajibio, Cauca, Colombia. As a point of comparison, we include a partial description of the immature stages of P. zerlina machay Racheli & Racheli, 2003, from Reserva Arcoiris, San Francisco, Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. The duration of the life cycle for P. zerlina zerlina was 38 days, for P. z. machay 35 days (2nd instar-adult), for P. veia florea 45 days and for P. medellina 44 days. The hostplant of P. zerlina zerlina and P. medellina was Solanum aphyodendron Knapp (Solanaceae). Larvae of both species fed on the underside of leaves, with gregarious larvae in P. zerlina zerlina and solitary larvae in P. medellina. Immature stages of P. veia florea and P. zerlina machay were found on two distinct and unidentified species of Solanum. In the case of P. veia, the majority of clutches were found on more basal leaves of more mature plants. The larval phenotype of P. zerlina zerlina is quite different from that of P. zerlina machay, and our results suggest that P. zerlina zerlina, and probably other western subspecies, are not conspecific with taxa currently called P. zerlina in the eastern Andes. If so, the oldest name for an east Andean taxon currently treated under the name P. zerlina is P. alina Haensch, 1909.

Keywords: life cycles, Danainae, Ithomiini, Pteronymia, Solanum, Solanaceae

Núñez Bustos, E. O., Favre, P., Bertolini, M. P., Turner, J. D., and A. Sourakov. 2011. Mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea) de la reserva privada Osununú-parque provincial Teyú Cuaré y alrededores de San Ignacio, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 34-42.

Abstract: During nine field trips from December 2008 to September 2010, 357 species of butterflies were found at Argentina's Teyú Cuaré Provincial Park and Osununú private reserve, in the Interior Atlantic Forest biome. A list of these species is presented here, representing the first list of Lepidoptera from southern Misiones. A number of species typical of Brazilian and Paraguayan cerrado vegetation, such as Eurytides dolicaon deicoon, Aricoris aff. colchis and Cogia hassan evansi, were found in this study. This suggests a possible movement of these species from northern latitudes through gallery forests along the Paraná river. The species Napaea eucharila (Bates, 1867) and Pompeius dares (Plötz, 1883) are new records for the country. Additional species should eventually be recorded, especially within grassland on the outskirts of Osununú reserve, when we expand our sampling efforts to other times throughout the year.

Key words: Biodiversity, Butterflies, Cerrado, Conservation, Misiones, Osununú, Teyú Cuaré.

Resumen.- Durante nueve viajes de campo realizados entre Diciembre 2008 y Septiembre 2010 se registraron 357 especies de mariposas en el Parque Provincial Teyú Cuaré y la reserva privada Osununú (Argentina), correspondientes al bioma Bosque Atlántico Interior. El listado de tales especies se presenta aquí, siendo el primer listado de Lepidoptera del sector sur de Misiones. Varias especies típicas del cerrado Brasilero y Paraguayo, tales como Eurytides dolicaon deicoon, Aricoris aff. colchis y Cogia hassan evansi, fueron encontradas en el presente estudio, lo cual sugiere un posible movimiento de estas especies desde latitudes norteñas a través de bosques de galería a lo largo del río Paraná. Las especies Napaea eucharila (Bates, 1867) y Pompeius dares (Plötz, 1883) son nuevos registros para el país. Especies adicionales serán registradas eventualmente, especialmente en el área de pastizales localizada en los alrededores de la reserva privada Osununú, ya que hubo varios meses en que no se visitó la zona.

Palabras clave: Biodiversidad, Mariposas, Cerrado, Conservación, Misiones, Osununú, Teyú Cuaré.

Matthews, D. L., Miller, J. Y., and J. Razowski. 2011. Scientific notes: Mictopsichia cubae recorded from Honduras (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(1): 43-61.

Abstract: Mictopsichia cubae Razowski, 2009 is reported from northern Honduras based on specimens collected at Pico Bonito National Park, near La Ceiba. This species was previously known only from two Cuban specimens. Both male and female genitalia are figured, with the female described and illustrated for the first time.

Key words: Tortricoidea, Archipini, telochromatic tortricines, neotropical, diurnal, Parque Nacional Pico Bonito.

DECEMBER 2011 Volume 21, No. 2

Larsen, T. B., and S. C. Collins. 2011. The African skipper genus Caenides Holland and the description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 62-65.

Abstract- The new species Caenides dacenova from Ebogo in Cameroun is described in relation to C. dacenilla Aurivillius - its closest relative - and C. otilia. It is so far only known from nine males and a single female collected on several different dates in the type locality and at Djoum close by, apparently being both rare and of restricted range. The general ecology and the distribution of the eight Caenides species currently accepted in the genus are discussed.

Key words: Hesperioidea, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae, Afrotropical, Ebogo, Cameroun, Caenides, dacenova.

Soares, A., Bizarro, J. M. S., Bastos, C. B., Tangerini, N., Silva, N. A., da Silva, A. S., and G. B. Silva. 2011. Preliminary analysis of the diurnal Lepidoptera fauna of the Três Picos State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a note on Parides ascanius (Cramer, 1775). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 66-79.

Abstract: This paper deals with the butterfly fauna of the Três Picos State Park (PETP) area, Rio de Janeiro State (RJ), Brazil, sampled by an inventory of the entomological collections housed in the Museu Nacional/UFRJ (MNRJ) and a recent field survey at Reserva Ecologica de Guapiaçu (REGUA). The lowland butterfly fauna (up to 600m) is compared for both sites and observations are presented on Parides ascanius (Cramer, 1775).Resumo - Apresentam-se dados provisórios sobre a Biodiversidade da fauna de borboletas do Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), Estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil, inventariada mediante o recurso a dados de etiquetas do acervo da coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ (MNRJ) e uma amostragem de campo executada na Reserva Ecologica de Guapiaçu (REGUA). A riqueza da fauna de borboletas da floresta ombrófila densa de baixada (até 600m) é comparada entre ambas as localidades, registrando-se uma extensão recente da área de ocorrência de Parides ascanius (Cramer, 1775).Keywords: Diurnal Lepidoptera, Biodiversity, Museu Nacional, REGUA, Três Picos, checklist, Parides ascanius.

Salcedo, C. 2011. Behavioral traits expressed during Heliconius butterflies roost-assembly. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 80-83.

Abstract: Several species within the genus Heliconius display nocturnal communal roosting. The butterflies have permanent roost sites that are used night after night. A few hours before sunset the butterflies start navigating towards the roost sites. When several individuals meet at these places, a series of behavioral interactions occur before they are all perched gregariously. Although some of these interactions have been previously reported, there are no data supporting these interactions as defined and consistently expressed behavioral traits. Using natural and in-cage roosting aggregations of H. sara and H. erato, from Costa Rica, Panama and Peru, and modern behavior analysis tools, the present work studied roost-assembly behavioral traits to establish whether these traits are consistently expressed or not, to provide a detailed description of them, and to detect interactions never reported before.

Key words: communal roosting, behavior.

Sourakov, A. 2011. Niche partitioning, co-evolution and life histories of erythrina moths, Terastia meticulosalis and Agathodes designalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 84-94.

Abstract: The life histories of the erythrina leafroller, Agathodes designalis, and the erythrina stem-borer, Terastia meticulosalis from north central Florida are described and illustrated, complementing previous literature accounts. It is proposed that competition among larvae of these two crambid moths has resulted in ecological niche partitioning. In the studied populations, both species feed on the coral bean, Erythrina herbacea, and each species occupies different parts of the plant and different plants in the ecosystem. Larval behavior and morphology are consistent with adaptation for resource partitioning. Distribution, hostplant and life history information are compiled from the literature, with a special emphasis on the economic importance of T. meticulosalis throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where this species and its sister species, T. subjectalis, attack a variety of Erythrina species. In Florida, both species are multivoltine and their life history varies between generations, suggesting adaptation to changes in environmental and hostplant conditions. The co-evolution of these moths in association with the diverse, pan-tropical genus Erythrina is proposed and discussed.

Key words: Africa, Agathodes ostentalis, Asia, Central America, coral bean, Erythrina variegata, Neotropics, pest, speciation, Spilomelinae.

Becker, V. O. 2011. A review of the neotropical moth genus Carathis Grote (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 95-97.

Abstract: The neotropical moth genus Carathis Grote (Arctiidae) is reviewed. Diagnoses, illustrations of adults and male genitalia and a key to the species identification are presented. Six species are recognized, two new: C. alayorum sp. n. endemic to Cuba, and C. septentrionalis sp. n. ranging from Amazon north into Mexico; one synonym is established: C. melamera Dognin syn. n. (=C. byblis Schaus).

Key words: Moths, neotropical, taxonomy, distribution.

Scientific notes:

Benyamini, D. 2011. Danaus eresimus (Cramer, 1777) new to Chile and the status in that country of Danaus erippus (Cramer, 1776). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 98-99.

Abstract: Danaus eresimus is reported for the first time for Chile based on a specimen collected by Alfredo Ugarte in Vicuña, Elqui, Coquimbo, Chile (620m, 30°01'54.23''S ; 70°42'29.73''W). The status of Danaus erippus in Chile and western Argentina is summarized.

Resumen-Danaus eresimus esta registrado por primera vez colectado por Alfredo Ugarte en el valle de Elqui, Coquimbo, Chile. El estado de Danaus erippus en Chile y zona Este de Argentina esta analizada.

Tavares, W. S., Serrão, J. E., Barbosa, R. A., and J. C. Zanuncio. 2011. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), a new host for the defoliator Oiketicus kirbyi Guilding, [1827] (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 100-104.

Abstract: The native vegetation of the Zona da Mata region in Minas Gerais, Brazil has largely been replaced by coffee plantations. Coffee, Coffea spp. (L.) (Rubiaceae), is the preferred host of the bagworm Oiketicus kirbyi Guilding, [1827] (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Brazil. This insect was found to cause damage to plants of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae) in the Municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three individuals of various sizes were found in seven trees planted along a parking lot. The branches containing the insects were collected, brought to the laboratory, and transferred to plastic pots (1.0 L) provided with a cotton wool pad moistened with distilled water. The caterpillars, of nocturnal habit, were observed partly emerging from the larval cases to feed on leaves. The biggest larval case was opened, which contained a caterpillar that was identified and deposited in the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) collections. This is the first report of O. kirby defoliating L. speciosa, a plant grown in parking lot and gardens to provide shade and as an ornamental plant for flower production. Oiketicus kirby should be monitored on L. speciosa to determine its potential economic impact on this plant.

Key words: bagworm, giant crape-myrtle, ornamental plant, tropical region, Zona da Mata region

Book review:

Kawahara, A. Y. 2012. Book Review: Sphingidae da Serra dos Órgãos, Sudeste do Brasil / A Guide to the Hawkmoths of the Serra dos Órgãos, South-eastern Brazil by Martin, A., Soares, A., and J. Bizarro (2011). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21(2): 105.

JUNE 2012 Volume 22, No. 1

Grishin, N. V. 2012. A new Central American Anastrus with unexpectedly distinct genitalia (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrginae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 1-7.

Abstract: Anastrus isidro n. sp. is described from Panama and Costa Rica. This new species is most similar to its South American counterpart A. obliqua, but differs from it by wing coloration, pattern and many prominent characters of male and female genitalia. A lectotype for Antigonus obliqua Plötz, 1884 is designated to ensure nomenclatural stability.

Key words: biodiversity, species and subspecies, skipper butterfly, genitalia, Anastrus obliqua

Park, K.-T. 2012. Lecithoceridae (Gelechioidea, Lepidoptera) of New Guinea Part X: Review of the genus Sarisophora, with descriptions of seven new species. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 8-15.

Abstract: The genus Sarisophora Meyrick in New Guinea is reviewed, including descriptions of seven new species from Papua New Guinea: S. pyrrhotata, S. beckerina, S. hadroides, S. melanotata, S. notornis, S. designata, and S. cyanostigmatis. There are no known species in the Indonesian part of New Guinea. Adults and genitalia of all known species, except two previously known species whose types are unknown, are illustrated. A tentative check list of the genus from New Guinea is provided.

Key words: New species, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Sarisophora, taxonomy

Larsen, T. B. 2012. Taxonomy of the Afrotropical genus Melphina Evans and the description of two new genera: Melphinyet and Noctulana (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae, incertae sedis). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 16-23.

Abstract: Two new genera of Afrotropical Hesperiidae, Melphinyet and Noctulana, are described to receive some of the species currently included in the genus Melphina Evans, to which they do not belong. The type species are respectively Melphina flavina Evans and Parnara noctula Druce. The need to include genitalia and androconial features in the definition of genera is emphasized since this was rarely done when defining the African Hesperiidae genera. The males of all species and a selection of genitalia from the three genera are illustrated.

Key words: Melphinyet flavina comb. nov., Melphinyet statirides comb. nov., Melphinyet tarace comb. nov., Melphinyet unistriga comb. nov., Noctulana noctula comb. nov., genitalia, androconia.

Grishin, N. V. 2012. A new species of Entheus from Ecuador (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Eudaminae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 24-28.

Abstract: A new species of Entheus is described from the Chocó region in northern Ecuador. Entheus warreni n. sp. belongs to the E. matho group and differs from other congeners by its distinctive wing pattern and subtle features in genitalia. Taxonomic problems with Entheus caused by the existence of cryptic species and extreme sexual dimorphism are discussed.

Key words: biodiversity, endemism, cryptic species, skipper butterfly, Entheus matho.

Thöny, H. 2012. Scientific Note: New records of the Neotropical species Eulepidotis zebra and Eulepidotis colleti with notes on their distribution (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Erebidae, Eulepidotinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 29-31.

Abstract: New records for Eulepidotis zebra Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2010 and Eulepidotis colleti Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2011 and there distribution.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Neotropical, Noctuoidea, Erebidae, Eulepidotinae, Eulepidotis

Resumo: Novos Datas para a distribuicao de Eulepidotis zebra Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2010, e Eulepidotis colleti Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2011 esta publicado.

Zusammenfassung: Neue Fundorte für Eulepidotis zebra Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2010 sowie Eulepidotis colleti Barbut & Lalanne-Cassou 2011 werden publiziert.

Montero, F., and M. Ortiz. 2012. Estados inmaduros e historia natural de algunas especies de la subtribu Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) presentes en el paramo del tablazo, Colombia. I. Junea doraete doraete (Hewitson 1858). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 32-41.

Resumen: Se hace la descripción de los estados inmaduros de una especie del género Junea Hemming 1964, representando con imágenes cada una de las etapas del ciclo biológico. El tiempo de desarrollo promedio fue de 156 días. Se presentan las características morfológicas típicas de la especie Junea doraete doraete (Hewitson 1858), con sus prolongaciones cefálicas y caudales como características mas sobresalientes. Se confirma Chusquea aff. scandens como planta hospedero, siendo una de las plantas nativas dominantes de la zona. Esta investigación se desarrolló en la zona conocida como la "Cuchilla del Tablazo" (Subachoque, Cundinamarca, Colombia), un área localizada al sur del "Complejo Guerrero", que integra un grupo de páramos al noroeste del departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se comentan aspectos etológicos relevantes de los adultos y larvas. Se presenta una tabla comparativa con el tiempo de desarrollo de los estados inmaduros de las especies de los Pronophilina publicadas hasta el momento.

Palabras clave: Complejo Guerrero, Subachoque, Cuchilla del Tablazo, Pantano de Arce, Pronophilina, Chusque, Junea, Ciclo biológico.

Abstract: The immature stages of the genus Junea Hemming 1964 are described with images of each of the biological stages. Typical morphological characters of the species Junea doraete doraete (Hewitson 1858) are described, the most outstanding being the cephalic and caudal prolongations. The length of the biological cycle averages 156 days. A table of immature stage development times for the subtribe Pronophilina is presented. The hostplant was found to be Chusquea aff. scandens, a dominant native species in the study area. The study was conducted in a zone known as the Cuchilla del Tablazo near Subachoque, Cundinamarca, Colombia, an area south of the Guerrero Complex, a group of paramos in northern Cundinamarca.

Key words: Complejo Guerrero, Subachoque, Cuchilla del Tablazo, Pantano de Arce, Pronophilina, Chusque, Junea, biological cycle.

Van Hook, T., Williams, E. H., Brower, L. P., Borkin, S., and J. Hein. 2012. A standardized protocol for ruler-based measurement of wing length in monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L. (Nymphalidae, Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 42-52.

Abstract: Standardized measurements using well-defined landmarks are the most effective means to reduce measurement error. We describe such a protocol for monarch forewings based on single measurements with a ruler to the nearest 1.0 mm. Analysis of this protocol showed that it provides excellent intra-observer repeatability, excellent to substantial inter-observer repeatability, and similar wing length estimates as those of calipers at 0.1 mm, as long as sample sizes are > 30. In addition, our study showed that males and females differ in wing length; different observers differ in their measurements and in their measurement error; and wings shrink slightly when dried. We make these recommendations for study of monarch wing lengths: 1) males and females should be analyzed separately; 2) live butterflies should be measured after cooling and dead butterflies should be measured before they are dried; 3) measurements should be restricted to the right forewing; 4) the standard protocol should be practiced and calibrated until measurements are repeatable within and among measurers; 5) the samples should be mixed among all observers when possible to mitigate relative biases; and 6) names, handedness, measurement error, and archived raw data should be reported. Widespread adoption of this protocol will increase the comparability of wing length data from various investigators. Similarly based standardization of measurement would benefit wing measurement of all Lepidoptera.

Key words: standardized measurement protocol, butterfly wings, body size, methodology

Sourakov, A., and M. Stubina. 2012. Scientific Note: Functional morphology of masquerading larva of Ceratonyx satanaria with notes on horned spanworm, Nematocampa resistaria (Geometridae: Ennominae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 53-59.

Abstract: Morphological drawings and photographs are provided illustrating the unusual larval morphology, featuring long cervical horns or tubercles, of the geometrid moth Ceratonyx satanaria Guenée. In addition photographs of Nematocampa resistaria (Herrich-Schäffer) larvae, commonly known as a "horned spanworm" for its long abdominal tubercles, are also provided. The possible function of cervical horns is discussed in the context of predator-prey interactions. A survey of available photographs of geometrid larvae worldwide revealed cervical horns only in the genera Ceratonyx (Ennominae: Nacophorini) and in two Australian species of Geometridae: Plesanemma fucata (F&R 1875) (Ennominae: Nacophorini) and Parepisparis lutosaria (F. & R) (Oenochrominae).

Key words: anti-predator defenses, mimicry, camouflage, crypsis.


Warren, A. D. 2012. Book Review: The genus Colias Fabricius, 1807. Jan Haugum's Annotated Catalogue of the Old World Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) by Josef Grieshuber, Bob Worthy & Gerardo Lamas (2012). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(1): 60-61.

DECEMBER 2012 Volume 22, No. 2

Brattström, O. 2012. Bicyclus brakefieldi (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a new species of Bicyclus from the Congo River basin. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 62-65.

Abstract: A new species of Bicyclus is described from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The species belongs to the ignobilis species-group, but has different androconial structure and slightly different wing pattern. Genitalia differences are very small as is expected within most Bicyclus species-groups. Comparison with the other known species in the ignobilis-group and discussion of biogeography of the different species are provided.

Key words: Bicyclus, androconia, genitalia, morphology

Turland, V. A., A. D. Warren, and D. S. Lewis. 2012. A new genus and species of Moncini from Jamaica, West Indies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 66-73.

Abstract: A remarkable new genus and species of skipper butterfly is described from the Cockpit Country of west central Jamaica, West Indies. This new species, a member of the tribe Moncini, differs from all other genera in the tribe in its external morphology, being the only member of the tribe to lack prominent wing markings, save a narrow, pale-yellow, transverse hindwing band. Examination of the genitalia and a COI sequence places this new skipper close to continental species of Vettius, which possess substantially different external morphological characters. Features of the female genitalia of Moncini are discussed, and the elongated, sclerotized antrum found in this new taxon and apparent relatives is proposed as a potentially informative character for grouping related members of Moncini.

Key words: Butterfly, Cockpit Country, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI), genitalia, morphology, skipper

Warren, A. D. and N.V. Grishin. 2012. Atrytonopsis zweifeli is a male of A. frappenda (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae, Hesperiini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 74-79.

Abstract: Until recently, the skipper butterfly Atrytonopsis zweifeli has been known from males, and the similar A. frappenda has been known from females. Discovery and analysis of a male A. frappenda from its type locality (Distrito Federal, Mexico) and an A. frappenda–like female from near the type locality of A. zweifeli, establishes Atrytonopsis zweifeli H. Freeman, 1969 as a new junior subjective synonym of A. frappenda (Dyar, 1920).

Van der Poorten, G. and N. van der Poorten. 2012. New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Part 2: Subfamily Satyrinae. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 80-92.

Abstract: The immature stages and larval food plants of 13 of the 17 species of butterflies of the family Nymphalidae, subfamily Satyrinae, in Sri Lanka are presented. The immature stages of 6 species in Sri Lanka are reported for the first time. The larval food plants of 12 species in Sri Lanka are documented for the first time while for 2 species, larval food plants previously reported in Sri Lanka are confirmed. The immature stages of 7 species that have been previously described from Sri Lankan material are compared to the findings of the current study and additional observations are presented. This study provides the basic information for further studies on the biology of these species and base information necessary to formulate conservation management programs for butterflies in Sri Lanka.

Key words: Immature stages, larval food plants, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Lepidoptera, butterflies, conservation.

Peigler, R. S. 2012. Diverse evidence that Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is entirely of sericultural origin. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 93-99.

Abstract: There is a preponderance of evidence that the tussah silkmoth Antheraea pernyi was derived thousands of years ago from the wild A. roylei. Historical, sericultural, morphological, cytogenetic, and taxonomic data are cited in support of this hypothesis. This explains why A. pernyi is very easy to mass rear, produces copious quantities of silk in its cocoons, and the oak tasar “hybrid”crosses between A. pernyi and A. roylei reared in India were fully fertile through numerous generations. The case is made that it is critical to conserve populations and habitats of the wild progenitor as a genetic resource for this economically important silkmoth.

Key words: China, Chinese oak silkmoth, India, sericulture, temperate tasar silk, tussah silk, wild silk

Montero, F. A. and M. P. Ortiz. 2012. Estados inmaduros e historia natural de algunas especies de la subtribu Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) presentes en el Paramo del Tablazo – Colombia. ii. Lymanopoda schmidti Adams, 1986. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 100-109.

Resumen: Por primera vez se describen los estados inmaduros de Lymanopoda schmidti Adams 1986, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, especie endémica de la parte sur del “Complejo Guerrero” (Cundinamarca - Colombia), área que integra un grupo de páramos en el departamento de Cundinamarca y que a la vez incluye en su extensión a el “Páramo del Tablazo”. Como aspectos relevantes presenta; la morfología de sus huevos, setas en la capsula cefálica y terminaciones caudales de sus larvas, diferenciándose así de las demás especies de la subtribu descritas hasta el momento. Se comentan aspectos etológicos de las larvas e imagos, presentándose en esta ultima fase, la alimentación en flores, aspecto hasta ahora poco referenciado en los adultos de este grupo. Se encontró que la fase larval pasa solamente por cuatro instares, mientras que las demás especies de los Pronophilina conocidos tienen cinco. El tiempo de desarrollo después de la oviposición hasta la emergencia de los imagos tarda en promedio 183 días, en condiciones de laboratorio. La planta hospedero es Chusquea aff. scandens (Poaceae: Bambusoidea), donde se alimentan las larvas en las hojas menos desarrolladas durante todo el ciclo. Este documento es el segundo de una serie, que tratan principalmente aspectos de los inmaduros de algunos Pronophilina en el “Páramo del Tablazo”.

Palabras Clave: Complejo Guerrero, Subachoque, Páramo del Tablazo, Pantano de Arce, Pronophilina, Chusquea, Lymanopoda, Ciclo biológico.

Abstract: The first description is provided of the immature stages of Lymanopoda schmidti Adams 1986, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, a species endemic to the southern part of the “Guerrero complex” (Cundinamarca - Colombia), an area which contains a group of ‘páramos’ in the Department of Cundinamarca, including the Páramo del Tablazo. Morphological features such as egg morphology, cephalic capsule setae and caudal terminations of the larvae in L. schmidti are compared with those from the other species of the subtribe described so far. The behavior of the larvae and adults is discussed, including the unusual observation of adults feeding at flowers. The larval stage comprises only four instars, while the other known species of Pronophilina have five. Development time from oviposition to adult eclosion is an average of 183 days under laboratory conditions. The hostplant is Chusquea aff. scandens (Poaceae: Bambusoidea) and the larvae feed on the youngest leaves throughout the lifecycle.

Key words: Guerrero complex, Subachoque, Páramo del Tablazo, Pantano de Arce, Pronophilina, Chusquea, Lymanopoda, biological cycle.

Sourakov, A. 2012. Scientific Note: On the biology of moths that feed on Erythrina in Florida. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 110-118.

Abstract: New studies on the life histories of erythrina leafroller Agathodes designalis, and erythrina borer Terastia meticulosalis (Crambidae), conducted in Florida, complement previous literature accounts. Specifically, oviposition, egg morphology, survival of larvae, and pupation behavior of these two closely related species are discussed. Another unrelated micro-moth species - erythrina leafminer, Leucoptera erythrinella (Lyonetiidae) - also uses coral bean as its hostplant, utilizing this resource in a manner that minimizes interspecific competition witht the abovementioned crambids. New studies on life history of L. erythrinella are presented, including illustrations of the immature stages, and sexual dimorphism.

Key words: anatomy, cocoon building, coral bean, Crambidae, ecology, egg, immature stages, larva, Lepidoptera, Lyonetiidae, morphology, niche partitioning, pupa, sexual dimorphism


Sourakov, A. Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America by David L. Wagner, Dale F. Schweitzer, J. Bolling Sullivan, & Richard C. Reardon (2011) Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 119.

Willmott, K. R. Lepidoptera. Borboletas e Mariposas do Brasil by Almir Cândido de Almeida & André Victor Lucci Freitas (2012) Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 120.

Jaffe, K. C. The Giant Silkmoths: Colour, Mimicry & Camouflage by Philip Howse & Kirby Wolfe (2012). On surrealism, beauty, evolution and entomology. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 121.

JUNE 2013 Volume 23, No. 1

Grishin, N. V. 2013. On the identity of Potamanaxas andraemon and its relatives, with the description of a new species from Peru (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Erynnini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 1-13.

Abstract - Analysis of male genitalia, wing patterns and wing shapes suggests that Potamanaxas perornatus Hayward, 1940, reinstated status is a species distinct from P. andraemon (Mabille, 1898); P. andraemon subspecies are species-level taxa: P. fuma Evans, 1953, new status and P. forum Evans, 1953, new status; and the P. fuma type series includes specimens of a new species, which is described herein. Potamanaxas lamasi new species differs from P. fuma by shape of valvae and maculation. A lectotype for Carrhenes andraemon Mabille, 1898 is designated to ensure nomenclatural stability. Primary types of these five species are illustrated with photographs, and a preliminary identification key to males is given.

Key words: taxonomy, skipper butterfly, Colombia, The Natural History Museum London, field marks

Hassan, S. S. H, E. Idris & M. E. N. Majerus. 2013. Morph ratio dynamics under male-killer invasion: The case of the tropical butterfly Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 14-21.

Abstract - This study aimed to provide field-based assessment for the theoretical possibility that there is a relationship between colour polymorphism and male-killing in the butterfly Acraea encedon. In an extensive, three year study conducted in Uganda, the spatial variations and temporal changes in the ratios of different colour forms were observed. Moreover, the association between Wolbachia susceptibility and colour pattern was analyzed statistically. Two hypotheses were tested: first, morph ratio dynamics is a consequence of random extinction-colonization cycles, caused by Wolbachia spread, and second, particular colour forms are less susceptible to Wolbachia infection than others, implying the existence of colour form-specific resistance alleles. Overall, obtained data are consistent with the first hypothesis but not with the second, however, further research is needed before any firm conclusions can be made on the reality, scale and nature of the presumed association between polymorphism and male-killing in A. encedon.   

Key words: Aposematic polymorphism, metapopulation dynamics, Müllerian mimicry; Wolbachia, female-biased sex ratio, PCR

Van Der Poorten, G. & N. Van Der Poorten. 2013. New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Part 1: Subfamilies Pierini (in part) and Coliadinae. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 22-31.

Abstract - The immature stages of 11 of the 28 species of Pieridae in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants are presented, two of them for the first time. The nine other species are compared to prior descriptions and their larval food plants confirmed and new ones identified. This study provides some base information needed for conservation management programs for butterflies in Sri Lanka and for further studies on the biology of these species.

Key words: Immature stages, larval food plants, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Pieridae, Coliadinae, Pierini, Lepidoptera, butterflies, conservation

Chandra, V., U. R. Khurma & T. A. Inoue. 2013. Natural History of Fiji’s Endemic Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio schmeltzi (Herrich-Schaeffer). Tropical Lepidoptera Research23(1): 32-38.

Abstract - The wild population of Papilio schmeltzi (Herrich-Schaeffer) in the Fiji Islands is very small. Successful rearing methods should be established prior to any attempts to increase numbers of the natural population.  Therefore, we studied the biology of this species. Papilio schmeltzi was reared on Micromelum minutum. Three generations were reared during the period from mid April 2008 to end of November 2008, and hence we estimate that in nature P. schmeltzi may have up to eight generations in a single year.  

Key words: Papilio schmeltzi, Micromelum minutum, life cycle, larval host plant, developmental duration, morphological characters, captive breeding  

Peigler, R. S. & J. V. Calhoun. 2013. Correct Authorship of the Name Phalaena ricini and the Nomenclatural Status of the NameSaturnia canningi(Lepidoptera: Saturniidae. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 39-43.

Abstract - The eri silkmoth (Samia ricini) is the third most important silk producer in the world.  The moth exists only in captivity, having been artificially selected from a wild progenitor, generally recognized as Samia canningi (Hutton) of the Himalayas.  In the taxonomic and sericultural literature, there has been considerable confusion and inconsistency regarding the correct authorship of the name Phalaena ricini as originally described.  The author of P. ricini has most often been cited as Boisduval, but other researchers have attributed authorship to Anderson, Jones, Donovan, or Hutton.  The original description was located, thus revealing that P. ricini should be credited to Sir William Jones.  In turn, the date of publication fixes the name P. ricini as the senior subjective synonym for both the wild and cultivated entities, thereby forcing Saturnia canningi into synonymy.

Key words: Assam, eri silk, ericulture, India, Sir William Jones, wild silk

Duque, P. V., A. B. Velez, J. D. U. Marin, E. M. B. Flores, D. L. Castillo & M. Wolff. 2013. Estadios inmaduros e historia natural de la mariposa de los Andes Altinote trinacria cf unicolor (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 44-53.

Abstract - The immature stages (eggs, larvae and pupae), oviposition and larval behavior of Altinote trinacria cf. unicolor (Talbot, 1932), are described here for the first time. Eggs were laid in groups on the undersides of leaves. Larvae were reared from egg clutches collected from the host plant Oligactes volubilis (Kunth) Cass (Asteraceae). The number of instars varied from eight to nine within the same egg clutch, and the corresponding development time from the first instar larva to adult varied from 108 to 115 days. Larvae were gregarious except in the last and penultimate instar. Larvae showed similar morphology and behavior to those previously described for Altinote ozomene (Godart, 1819) from the northern Andes and various species of Actinote Hübner, 1819 from southeastern Brazil and the Andes.

Key words: Host plant; immature behavior; Lepidoptera; life cycle; neotropical

Resumen - Los estados inmaduros (huevos, larvas y pupas), oviposición y comportamiento larval de Altinote trinacria cf. Unicolor (Talbot, 1932) son descritos aquí por primera vez. Las larvas fueron cultivadas en laboratorio a partir de huevos colectados en campo en la planta hospedera Oligactes volubilis (Kunth) Cass. Los huevos fueron puestos de manera agrupada debajo de las hojas. El número de instares larvales varió entre ocho y nueve en larvas procedentes de la misma postura y el tiempo de desarrollo correspondiente desde larva uno hasta la emergencia del adulto osciló entre 108 y115 días. Las larvas son gregarias, excepto en el último y penúltimo instar en los cuales se alimentan individualmente o máximo tres larvas por hoja. La morfología externa y el comportamiento de las larvas es similar a las especies descritas previamente, Altinote ozomene (Godart, 1819) de los Andes norteños y varias especies de Actinote Hübner, 1819 desde el sudeste del Brasil y de los Andes.

Palabras claves: Planta hospedera, inmaduros, comportamiento, Lepidoptera, Neotrópico

Montero, F. A. & M. P. Ortiz. 2013. Estados inmaduros e historia natural de algunas especies de la subtribu Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) presentes en el paramo del tablazo – Colombia. ii. Neopedaliodes zipa(Adams 1986). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(1): 54-61.

Abstract - The early stages for a species in the genus Neopedaliodes Viloria, L. Miller & J. Miller 2004 (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) are reported here for the first time. The species Neopedaliodes zipa (Adams, 1986) is known to be an endemic of the southern Guerrero complex (including the Páramo del Tablazo and the Cuchilla del Tablazo). Use of the family Cyperaceae (Carex jamesonii Boott, 1845) is reported for the first time for the subtribe Pronophilina. This host is associated with wetland areas and water courses. Development time from egg laying to adult under laboratory conditions averaged 333 days, here reported as the longest known life-cycle within tropical Rhopalocera. We found that there is a 3 month season of greatest abundance of adults (August to October). It is presumed that in natural conditions the life cycle lasts close to a year, a fact corroborated by the time shown in the laboratory. The larvae display no significant morphological differences from those known for the genus Pedaliodes Butler, 1867. Research was conducted in the Cuchilla del Tablazo (Subachoque - Cundinamarca), an area located south of the “Guerrero Complex” which includes a group of páramos in the northwest of the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Observations on the behavior of the larvae are discussed, such as that when disturbed, larvae drop suddenly from the plant to the ground, and that they are crepuscular and nocturnal feeders. Ethological habits of the adults in their natural environment are reported, including forced intercourse and nectaring on flowers. New altitudinal distribution records are also given for the species.

Key words: Pronophilina, Cyperaceae, Carex, Neopedaliodes, life history, Colombia, Andes

RESUMEN.- Se describe por primera vez los estados inmaduros de una especie del género Neopedaliodes Viloria, L. Miller & J. Miller 2004, (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina), específicamente Neopedaliodes zipa (Adams, 1986), especie reportada hasta ahora como endémica de la zona sur del complejo Guerrero (incluye al Páramo y cuchilla del Tablazo). Se reporta por primera vez para la subtribu Pronophilina, la utilización como planta huésped de una especie de la familia Cyperaceae: Carex jamesonii Boott, 1845;  planta asociada a áreas de humedales y corrientes de agua. El tiempo de desarrollo desde la postura de los huevos hasta la obtención de los adultos en condiciones de laboratorio, fue en promedio de 333 días, reportándose como el ciclo biológico más largo, dentro de las Rhopalocera tropicales. Se encontró que la temporada de abundancia de los adultos, se da durante tres meses del año (agosto - octubre), pues se estima que en condiciones naturales el ciclo biológico tiene una duración cercana a un año, hecho corroborado por los tiempos obtenidos en el laboratorio. Las larvas no presentan mayores diferencias morfológicas al ser comparadas con las del género Pedaliodes Butler, 1867 descritas hasta el momento. La investigación se ha realizado en la “Cuchilla del Tablazo” (Subachoque - Cundinamarca), un área localizada al sur del “Complejo Guerrero”, que integra un grupo de páramos al noroeste del departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se comentan observaciones en la conducta de las larvas, tales como que al sentirse perturbadas se dejan caer súbitamente de la planta al suelo y su alimentación se da en horas crepusculares y nocturnas, además de hábitos etológicos de los adultos en su medio natural, presentándose la copula forzada y el consumo de néctar en flores, entre otros aspectos; adicionalmente se reportan nuevos registros de distribución altitudinal de la especie.  

Palabras Clave: Pronophilina, Cyperaceae, Carex, Neopedaliodes, ciclo biológico, Colombia, Andes

DECEMBER 2013 Volume 23, No. 2

Blandin, P. & B. Purser. 2013. Evolution and diversification of Neotropical butterflies: Insights from the biogeography and phylogeny of the genus Morpho Fabricius, 1807 (Nymphalidae: Morphinae), with a review of the geodynamics of South AAmerica. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2): 62-85.

Abstract: Based on biogeography and phylogeny of the Neotropical genus Morpho, and a synthesis of present knowledge on the geodynamics and paleogeography of South America, evolutionary scenarios are proposed to understand the diversification of the genus through time and space.They emphasize the driving role of Andean uplift and subsequent transformations of Amazonia.

Key words: Neotropics, South America, Gondwana, Andes, Amazonia, geodynamics, paleogeography, Lepidoptera, Morpho, biogeography, phylogeny, diversification

Radford, J. T. & K. R. Willmott. 2013.  A distinctive new subspecies of Catasticta poujadei from the Cordillera del Cóndor in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae) Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2): 86-91.

Abstract: A new subspecies, Catasticta poujadei condor Radford & Willmott, n. ssp., is described from the isolated Cordillera del Cóndor in Ecuador. Despite marked differences in size and wing pattern in comparison with the nominate subspecies, a 636 bp sequence from the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI), also known as the “barcode” region for animals, showed little difference in comparison with C. poujadei poujadei from the adjacent main Andean cordillera. Coupled with a study of geographic variation within the C. poujadei from the Peruvian Andes, these data suggest that the new taxon is best treated as a subspecies. The taxon is currently known only from the type locality and its distinctiveness suggests that further endemic butterfly taxa remain to be discovered in the Cordillera del Cóndor.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva subespecie, Catasticta poujadei condor Radford y Willmott, n. ssp., de la aislada Cordillera del Cóndor en Ecuador. A pesar de marcadas diferencias en el tamaño y patrón de las alas en comparación con la subespecie nominal, una secuencia de 636 bp del gen mitocondrial citocromo oxidasa I (COI), también conocida como la región de “código de barras” para los animales, mostró escasa diferencia en comparación con C. poujadei poujadei de la vecina Cordillera Andina. Junto a un estudio de la variación geográfica de C. poujadei de los Andes peruanos, estos datos sugieren que el nuevo taxón es mejor tratado como una subespecie. Este taxón se conoce solamente de la localidad típo y es tan distinto que parece probable que otros taxones endémicos de mariposas serán descubiertos en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

Larsen, T. B. 2013. Two new species of African Hesperiidae: Borbo (Hepseriinae, Baorini) and Platylesches (Hepseriinae, incertae sedis). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2): 92-98.

Abstract: Borbo cottrelli is described as a new species from Zambia. It is close to the sympatric and widespread B. holtzi, but differs in both external features and genitalia and the two species are sympatric. Platylesches morigambia is described as a new wholly West African species; Evans (1937) listed it under the name P. batangae, but the latter is a very different, rare skipper from Cameroun and Congo.

Key words: Borbo cottrelli sp. nov., Platylesches morigambia sp. nov., Platylesches batangae.

Landry, B., V. O. Becker & R. Mally. 2013. Breaking the pattern again: additions to Micrelephas Dognin, 1905 (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae; Crambinae), including a new species and a key. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2): 99-112.

Abstract: Based on a phylogenetic analysis, a new species, here described, is placed in genus Micrelephas Dognin. Micrelephas longicilia Landry & Becker, sp. n. occurs from Guatemala south to Paraná, Brazil [HT from Bahia, Brazil]. It differs markedly from other described species of Micrelephas in the wider and relatively shorter forewings with a produced apex and with clear submedian and postmedian transverse lines. It is assigned to Micrelephas on the basis of several characters, including a previously recognized synapomorphy of the male genitalia, i.e. the presence of short fine spines on the gnathos dorsally toward apex. The males also share with several (or all) other species of Micrelephas a furrow containing long, presumably androconial scales on the upper surface of the hindwing along the basal half of M1, a series of very long setae along the ventral edge of the valva, and a costal projection on the valva. Catharylla interrupta Zeller, 1866, comb. n. and Argyria mesodonta Zeller, 1877, comb. n. are transferred to Micrelephas Dognin, 1905. Argyria mesozonalis Hampson, 1919, syn. n. and Argyria antonialis Schaus, 1922, syn. n. are synonymized with Micrelephas interruptus (Zeller). A key to the ten species of Micrelephas is provided.

Sumário: Basándose en un análisis filogenético, se describe una nueva especie en el género Micrelephas Dognin. Micrelephas longicilia Landry & Becker, sp. n. ocurre desde Guatemala a Paraná, Brasil [HT de Bahía, Brasil]. Difiere considerablemente de otras especies de Micrelephas en las alas más amplias y relativamente más cortas con el ápice producido y con líneas transversales submediana y postmediana bien contrastadas. Se asigna a Micrelephas sobre la base de varios carácters, entre ellos una synapomorfía de los órganos genitales masculinos, reconocida previamente, es decir la presencia de espinas finas y cortas al ápice del gnathos dorsalmente. Los machos también compartan con varias (o todas) otras especies de Micrelephas un surco que contiene, presumiblemente escamas androconiales en la superficie superior de las alas posteriores a lo largo de la mitad basal de la M1, una serie de pelos muy largos en el borde ventral de la valva y una proyección costal en la valva. Catharylla interrupta Zeller, 1866, comb. n. y Argyria mesodonta Zeller, 1877, comb. n. son transferidas a Micrelephas Dognin, 1905. Argyria mesozonalis Hampson, 1919, syn. n. y Argyria antonialis Schaus, 1922, syn. n. son sinonimizadas con Micrelephas interruptus (Zeller). Se proporciona una clave para las diez especies de Micrelephas.

Key words: Moth, Argyria, Catharylla, new synonymy, new combinations, Neotropical, Cytochrome Oxidase I, phylogenetic analysis, parsimony

Núñez Bustos, E. O. 2013. Las especies del genero AdelphaHübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae) de Argentina y Uruguay. Tropical Lepidoptera Research23(2):113-12.

Abstract: The present paper lists all species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae) that occur in Argentina and Uruguay based on literature, collections, photographs and field records. Their habitats, abundance, host plants and geographic ranges are provided. The doubtful presence of three species and the possible presence of another nine still not found in Argentina are discussed. A list of 82 Argentinean localities where Adelpha have been recorded, with their geographic coordinates, is provided. Finally, some nomenclatural mistakes and misidentifications in earlier works are clarified.

Key words: Adelpha, Argentina, behavior, habitat, host plants, identification, inventory, Uruguay

Resumen: El presente trabajo lista todas las especies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae) que vuelan en la Argentina y Uruguay, basado en la literatura, colecciones, fotografías y datos de campo. Su hábitat, abundancia, plantas hospedadoras y rango geográfico son comentados. La dudosa presencia de tres especies y la posible presencia de otras nueve aún no halladas en Argentina es discutido. Se detalla una lista de 82 localidades argentinas donde especies de Adelpha han sido registradas, con sus respectivas coordenadas geográficas. Por último, algunos errores de nomenclatura e identificación de trabajos anteriores se aclaran.

Palabras clave: Adelpha, Argentina, comportamiento, hábitat, plantas hospedadoras, identificación, inventario, Uruguay

DECEMBER 2013 Volume 23, No. 2, Supplement 1 (Contributions to the studies of the genus Potamanaxas)

Grishin, N. V. 2013. Adding to the rich fauna of the Chocó region in Ecuador, a new species of Potamanaxas (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Erynnini).Tropical Lepidoptera Research23(2)S1: 1–5, Plates I–III.

Abstract: A new species of Potamanaxas is described from the Chocó region in northern Ecuador. Potamanaxas hermieri, sp. nov. is most similar to P. paralus (Godman & Salvin, 1895) and differs from it in the shape of the discal cream-colored band on wings and characters of the male genitalia. Furthermore, significant differences in male genitalia and facies suggest that P. cranda Evans, 1953 new status, and P. paphos Evans, 1953 new status are distinct species and not subspecies of P. thestia (Hewitson, 1870) and P. hirta (Weeks, 1901), respectively. The status of P. paralus as a species-level taxon is confirmed by the analysis of morphology. Lectotypes for Potamanax paralus and Leucochitonea thestia Hewitson, 1870 are designated to ensure nomenclatural stability.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie de Potamanaxas de la región del Chocó en el norte de Ecuador. Potamanaxas hermieri, sp. nov. es la más similar a P. paralus (Godman & Salvin, 1895) y se diferencia de ella en la forma de la banda de color crema discal en las alas y las caracteristicas de los genitales masculinos. Además, las diferencias significativas en los genitales masculinos y facies sugieren que P. cranda Evans, 1953 nuevo estatus, y P. paphos Evans, 1953 nuevo estatus son especies distintas y no subespecies de P. thestia (Hewitson, 1870) y P. hirta (Weeks, 1901), respectivamente. El estado de P. paralus como un taxón de nivel de especie se confirma por el análisis morfológico. Lectotipos para Potamanax paralus y Leucochitonea thestia Hewitson, 1870 son designados para asegurar la estabilidad nomenclatural.

Key words: biodiversity, taxonomy, endemism, skipper butterfly, Río Chuchuví

Grishin, N. V. 2013. A new Potamanaxas(Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Erynnini), patterned like P. bana, but with sickle-armed genitalia, not chicken claws. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2)S1: 6–9, plates IV–VII.

Abstract: A new species of Potamanaxas is described from West Andes in Colombia. P. serp, sp. nov. is very similar to P. bana E. Bell, 1956 in wing patterns, but differs profoundly in male genitalia, which uniquely characterize it. This pair of superficially close species, one with extended, sickle-shaped cuculli and the other one with very short, vestigial cuculli apparently parallels the relationship in another Potamanaxas pair: P. perornatus Hayward, 1940 (extended) and P. andraemon (Mabille, 1898) (short). Comparative analysis of male genitalia and possible sympatry in Ecuador suggest that P. trigga Evans, 1953 new status, is a distinct biological species and not a subspecies of P. laoma (Hewitson, 1870) as originally proposed. Primary type specimens and their genitalia are illustrated for relevant taxa.

Resumen: Una nueva especie de Potamanaxas se describe para la Cordillera Occidental en Colombia. P. serp, sp. nov. es muy similar a P. bana E. Bell, 1956 en patrones de ala, pero difiere profundamente en los genitales masculinos, que caracterizan de manera única. Este par de superficialmente especies cercanas, uno con cuculli extendida en forma de hoz y el otro con cuculli vestigial muy corto aparentemente es paralela a la relación en otro par Potamanaxas: P. perornatus Hayward, 1940 (extendida) y P. andraemon (Mabille, 1898) (corto). Análisis comparativo de los genitales masculinos y posible simpatría en Ecuador indican que P. trigga Evans, 1953 nuevo estatus, es una especie biológica distinta y no una subespecie de P. laoma (Hewitson, 1870) según la propuesta original. Espécimenes tipo primarios y sus genitales están ilustrados para los taxones relevantes.

Key words: taxonomy, skipper butterfly, sister species, Neotropics, tuft of scales.

Grishin, N. V. 2013. An enigmatic new Potamanaxas (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Erynnini) is a visual mosaic of characters from distantly related species. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 23(2)S1: 10–12, plates VIII-X.

Abstract: A new species of Potamanaxas is described from the Chocó region in northern Ecuador. P. zagadka, sp. nov. stands out from other members of the genus both in the structure of male genitalia not being very similar to any other Potamanaxas, and unusual wing patterns that combine characters of several species. While its exact phylogenetic affinities remain puzzling, this new species is likely to be important for better understanding of this genus’ evolution and may be a prototype for its own species group. Additionally, significant differences in male genitalia and wing patterns and sympatry with P. laoma (Hewitson, 1870) in Ecuador suggest that P. trex Evans, 1953 new status is a species-level taxon and not a subspecies of P. laoma.

Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie de Potamanaxas de la región del Chocó en el norte de Ecuador. P. zagadka, sp. nov. se destaca de los otros miembros del género porque la estructura de los genitales masculinos es poco similar a las otras Potamanaxas, y además los patrones inusuales de las alas combinan características de varias especies. Aunque sus afinidades exactas filogenéticos siguen siendo poco claras, es probable que esta especie nueva sea importante para una mejor comprensión de la evolución de este género, y que pueda ser un prototipo de su propio grupo de especies. Además, las diferencias significativas de los genitales masculinos y los patrones de las alas y la simpatría con P. laoma (Hewitson, 1870) en Ecuador indican que P. trex Evans, 1953 nuevo estatus es un taxón de nivel de especie y no una subespecie de P. laoma.

Key words: taxonomy, skipper butterfly, Neotropics, parallel evolution, cucullus.

Grishin, N. V. 2013. Two new species of Potamanaxas (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Erynnini)—one of them,P. melicertes of Evans, was mentioned but not named by Godman and Salvin. Tropical Lepidoptera Research23(2)S1: 13–17, plates XI-XIV.

Abstract: When primary type specimens are not available for analysis by a reviser, mistakes may occur. Examination of the Potamanaxas melicertes (Godman & Salvin, 1895) holotype and the original description suggest that the species W. H. Evans mistook for it is new, described here from Colombia (type locality) and Ecuador as P. tschotky, sp. nov. It differs from P. melicertes in the shape and extent of discal white band on both wings as well as the details of its submarginal pattern. This species (from Ecuador) was apparently mentioned but not named by Godman and Salvin just prior to the description of P. melicertes (from Panama). Yet an additional new species with restricted white band on the hindwing, described here as P. okroogly, sp. nov., is found in Peru (type locality) and Bolivia. Its male genitalia imply close relationship with P. thoria (Hewitson, 1870). Primary types of relevant taxa are illustrated.

Resumen: Cuando espécimenes de tipo primario no están disponibles para ser analizados por un revisor, pueden ocurrir errores. La inspección del holotipo de Potamanaxas melicertes (Godman y Salvin, 1895) y su descripción original sugiere que la especie con la que W. H. Evans la confundió es nueva, se describe aquí desde Colombia (tipo de localidad) y Ecuador como P. tschotky, sp. nov. Se diferencia de P. melicertes tanto en la forma y la extensión de la banda blanca discal en ambas alas como en los detalles del patrón submarginal. Esta especie (de Ecuador), según parece, fue mencionada (pero no nombrada) por Godman y Salvin justo antes de su descripción de P. melicertes (de Panamá). Una otra especie nueva con una banda blanca restringida en las alas posteriores, descrito aquí como P. okroogly, sp. nov., se halla en Perú (tipo de localidad) y Bolivia. Su genitales masculinos implican estrecha relación con P. thoria (Hewitson, 1870). Especímenes de tipo primario de taxones relevantes son ilustrados.

Key words: taxonomy, skipper butterfly, Neotropics, cryptic species, genitalia.

JUNE 2014 Volume 24, No. 1

Anderson, A. A. 2014. A new species of Panoquina from Panama (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae, Calpodini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 1-3.

Abstract: A new large species of Panoquina is named and described from Panama and illustrated with its genitalia. Its lack of forewing maculation sets it apart from other large members of the genus, although its ventral surface markings and genitalia are similar to known Panoquina species.

Key words: Panama, neotropics, genitalia, Hesperiidae


Neild, A. F. E., S. Nakahara, S. A. Fratello & D. J. Harvey. 2014. A new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini) from the Amazon Basin and the Guianas. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 4-9.

Abstract: A new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, from the Amazon basin and the extreme southern edge of the Guianas, E. alacristata sp. nov., is described and compared to its congeners, from which it differs in genitalia, wing shape, and the presence of an androconial hair pencil on the dorsal hindwing.

Key words: Amazon, Guianas, Neotropical, Euptychiina, androconia, hair pencil, genitalia


Tennent, W. J., C. J. Müller & D. Peggie. 2014. Two new butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the collections of the Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 10-14.

Abstract: Two new species of butterfly, Epimastidia suffuscus sp. n., and Paraduba tenebrae sp. n., (Lycaenidae), are described from the collections of the Museum Zoologi Bogor (MZB), Indonesia. Their probable provenance, almost certainly West Papua, is discussed in detail.

Key words: Indonesia, West Papua, Lycaenidae, new taxa, Epimastidia, Paraduba


Hernández, L. C., L. S. Fuentes, G. E. Fajardo & D. L. Matthews. 2014. A new species of Oidaematophorus (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) from Chingaza National Natural Park in Colombia. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 15-21.

Abstract: Oidaematophorus espeletiae, sp. nov., is described from the Chingaza páramo in Colombia. The life history, external characters of the adult, male and female genitalia, final instar larva, and pupa are described and illustrated. This moth species is widely distributed in the páramo. Larvae cause damage in meristem leaves of frailejones (Espeletia spp., Asteraceae). Identification and continuing studies of this moth are important to determine its potential role in the reported death of numerous frailejones in the area. The hosts, Espeletia grandiflora and E. uribei are some of the keystone species of the páramo ecosytem.

Resumen: Se describe Oidaematophorus espeletiae, sp. nov del páramo de Chingaza, Colombia. Se describen e ilustran la historia de vida, caracteres externos del adulto, genitalia de macho y hembra, último instar larval, y pupa. Esta polilla se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el páramo. Las larvas ocasionan daños en las hojas del meristemo de los frailejones (Espeletia spp., Asteraceae). La identificación y futuros estudios de esta polilla son importantes para determinar su rol potencial en la mortalidad de estas plantas. Los huéspedes Espeletia grandiflora y E. uribei, son algunas de las especies fundamentales del ecosistema de páramo.

Key words: Chingaza, Colombia, Espeletia, frailejones, genitalia, life history, larvae, Neotropical, páramo, pupae


Tikader, A., K. Vijayan & B. Saratchandra. 2014. Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) - A silk producing wild insect in India. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 22-29.

Abstract: Cricula silkworm (Cricula trifenestrata Helfer) is a wild insect present in the northeastern part of India producing golden color fine silk. This silkworm completes its life cycle 4-5 times in a year and is thus termed multivoltine. In certain areas it completes the life cycle twice in a year and is thus termed bivoltine. The Cricula silkworm lives on some of the same trees with the commercially exploited ‘muga’ silkworm, so causes damages to that semi-domesticated silkworm. The Cricula feeds on leaves of several plants and migrates from one place to another depending on the availability of food plants. No literature is available on the life cycle, host plant preferences, incidence of the diseases and pests, and the extent of damage it causes to the semi-domesticated muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) through acting as a carrier of diseases and destroyer of the host plant. Thus, the present study aimed at recording the detail life cycle of Cricula in captivity as well as under natural conditions in order to develop strategies to control the damage it causes to the muga silk industry and also to explore the possibility of utilizing its silk for commercial utilization.

Key words: Cricula trifenestrata, Saturniidae, rearing, grainage, disease, pest, utilization, silk, pebrine, flecherie


Beltrami, L. C. C., O. H. H. Mielke, M. M. Casagrande & E. Carneiro. 2014. The Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera) of São Luiz Do Purunã, Balsa Nova, Paraná State, Brazil. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 30-36.

Abstract: A list of butterflies (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) is presented from São Luiz do Purunã, Balsa Nova, Paraná, a locality in south Brazil. This area is especially characterized by a unique landscape in which Araucaria Forest patches are naturally surrounded by grasslands. Including are 185 spp. of Hesperiidae, 14 spp. of Papilionidae, 25 spp. of Pieridae, 40 spp. of Lycaenidae, 38 spp. of Riodinidae and 130 spp. of Nymphalidae. Recorded for the first time in that region were 37 species, including some large and colourful species (e.g. Eurytides bellerophon and Eurytides dolicaon deicoon) and small inconspicuous skippers. We highlight the presence of characteristic species of Araucarian forest and grasslands, aiming to contribute to the biology and habitat description of butterflies of such altitudinal landscapes. Additionally, the presence and absence of threatened species are individually discussed to better describe their geographical distribution.

Key words: inventory, Araucaria forest, grasslands, high altitude butterflies, threatened species, species distribution


Montero, F. A. & M. P. Ortiz. 2014. Estados inmaduros e historia natural de algunas especies de la subtribu Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) presentes en el páramo Del Tablazo, Colombia IV. Lasiophila circe circe C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 37-43.

Abstract: The immature stages of Lasiophila circe circe C. Felder and R. Felder, 1859, are described for the first time, also representing the first published description of the life cycle for any species in this genus. The species used as host plant Chusquea serrulata Pilger, 1898 (Poaceae: Bambusoidea). Females oviposited single eggs on the underside of the selected leaves. The life cycle from egg to adult emergence was 134 days on average, after being reared ex situm in the same area where the species naturally occurs at 3250m. Adults fly throughout the year in areas dominated by the host plant, although males also make small forays along roads or streams outside their usual habitat. Morphological characteristics are discussed and compared with other species of the subtribe, in addition to behavioral aspects of larvae and adults.

Key words: Colombia, Cundinamarca, Páramo del Tablazo, Chusquea, Lasiophila, biological cycle, Conservation


Warren, A. D., D. Tan, K. R. Willmott & N. V. Grishin. 2014. Refining the diagnostic characters and distribution of Hermeuptychia intricata (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 44-51.

Abstract: The absence of androconia on the dorsal surface of the wings is established as an external diagnostic character of male Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, 2014, that distinguishes this newly described species from males of the sympatric H. sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). Additional United States records of H. intricata are reviewed, extending its distribution to include North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and central Texas. Observations on the phenology and behavior of H. intricata and H. sosybius in northern Florida are given.

Key words: cryptic species, identification, southeastern United States, sympatry.

Resumen: Se establece la ausencia de androconia en la superficie dorsal de las alas como un carácter diagnóstico externo del macho de Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, 2014, para distinguir esta especie de reciente descripción de los machos simpátricos de H. sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). Se revisan registros adicionales de H. intricata de los Estados Unidos, cuales amplían su distribución para incluir North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi y Texas central. Se dan observaciones sobre la fenología y el comportamiento de H. intricata y H. sosybius en el norte de Florida.

Palabras clave: especies crípticas, identificación, sudeste de los Estados Unidos, sympatria

Sourakov, A. 2014. On the polymorphism and polyphenism of Automeris io (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in north Florida. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 52-58.

Abstract: Raising field-collected batches of Automeris io eggs and larvae in north central Florida and further breeding the resulting lines in the lab for over three years yielded over 200 highly variable specimens. The polymorphism and seasonal polyphenism in male coloration are illustrated and analyzed. Expression of the rose or tawny-orange ground color of the forewing is shown to be provoked by the diapause, as was previously suggested by others. However, it was found that this expression is not clear-cut and is determined by the genetics of the parental stock and of the individual moth, and seems to be linked to the propensity for diapause and to the diapause duration. Gainesville, north-central Florida, where the study was conducted, appears to be in a transitional zone between the more northern subspecies A. io io and the more tropical A. io lilith, and both are present here, expressing not only different phenotypes, but also different phenotypic response to diapause. During the breeding experiments, A. io underwent two generations per year when kept at the natural light cycle, with two emergences, one in April-June and another in September-November, followed by a winter diapause. Many of the pupae from the summer generation broods went into diapause instead of emerging in the fall, which, in nature, should reduce the risk of mortality for the whole brood. The diapause can be eliminated in the fall generation in most (though not all) individuals by raising larvae at 24 hour-light cycle.

Key words: phenotypic plasticity, genetics, environment, univoltine, bivoltine, organismal ecology, inbreeding, aberration

Covell, C. V. Jr. 2014. Two Mexican Geometridae new to the United States, with a new synonymy. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 59-60.

Abstract: The first United States records of geometrid moths Zanclopteryx mexicana Prout (Oenochrominae) and Arcobara cavana (Druce) (Sterrhinae) are reported. Pigia calotis Dyar, n. syn. is synonymized with A. cavana. Lectotypes are selected for A. cavana and P. calotis.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Oenochrominae, Sterrhinae, United States, Mexico

Warren, A. D. 2014. Book Review: Hajo B. P. E. Gernaat, Borgesius G. Beckles & Tinde van Andel. (2012). Butterflies Of Suriname. A Natural History. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(1): 61.


DECEMBER 2014 Volume 24, No. 2

Tennent, W. J. 2014. Two new subspecies of Mycalesis terminus Fabricius, 1775, from the islands of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 62-66.

Abstract: Based on a large number of specimens of Mycalesis terminus (Fabricius, 1775), collected by the author in 2010-2012, the distribution of this species on the islands of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, is discussed. Two new subspecies are described; M. t. jacobyi ssp. n., from Woodlark and the eastern Louisiade Archipelago, and M. t. mitchelli ssp. n., from the Amphlett group, north of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands. A map is provided of the distribution of M. terminus in Milne Bay.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Satyrinae, Mycalesis terminus, new taxa, Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province islands

Garcia, C. R., S. Gallusser, L. Lachaume & P. Blandin. 2014. The ecology and life cycle of the Amazonian Morpho cisseis phanodemus Hewitson, 1869, with a comparative review of early stages in the genus Morpho (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 67-80.

Abstract : We studied the ecology and life-cycle of Morpho cisseis phanodemus Hewitson, 1869, in north-eastern Peru. Data on adult flight activity are provided and the egg, larval instars and pupa are described for the first time. The hostplant belongs to the genus Abuta (Menispermaceae). The life cycle length is compared with available information for other Morpho species and the diversity of early stages in the genus Morpho is discussed from a phylogenetic perspective.

Key words: Morphinae, Morpho, M. cisseis, eggs, larvae, hostplant, life cycle, diversity, phylogeny, north-eastern Peru

Montero F. A. & M. P. Ortiz. 2014. Ciclo de vida y ecología de Pedaliodes pallantis Hewitson, 1862 (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae Pronophilina) en Cundinamarca - Colombia. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 81-86.

Resumen: Este artículo describe el ciclo de vida de Pedaliodes pallantis Hewitson 1862. La especie utiliza como planta hospedante a Chusquea aff. serrulata (Poaceae: Bambusoidea). Los huevos son puestos individualmente o hasta dos en el envés de las hojas. La duración promedio del ciclo de vida en condiciones de laboratorio es de 157 días en su altitud natural (3300 m). La morfología larval y de pupa es similar a otros Pedaliodes descritos. Los adultos se observan volar en abundancia durante dos épocas del año (Julio-Septiembre y Enero-Marzo), generalmente en áreas donde predomina su planta hospedante y realizan recorridos dentro del mismo conglomerado de Chusquea. Se comentan aspectos etológicos de larvas y adultos y se reporta nueva distribución altitudinal (3350 – 3450 m).

Palabras Clave: Pronophilina, Pedaliodes, Chusquea, ciclo biológico, Colombia, Andes

Abstract: This article describes the life cycle of Pedaliodes pallantis Hewitson 1862. The species used Chusquea aff. serrulata (Poaceae: Bambusoidea) as host plant. Eggs are laid singly or up to two per leaf on the underside of the leaves. The average duration of the life cycle under laboratory conditions is 157 days at their natural altitude (3300 m). The larval and pupal morphology is similar to other described Pedaliodes. Adults fly in abundance in two seasons (July-September and January-March), in areas where the host plant dominates, and patrol within the same cluster of Chusquea. We discuss behavioral aspects of larvae and adults and we report a new altitudinal distribution (3350 – 3450 m).

Key words: Pronophilina, Pedaliodes, Chusquea, life history, Colombia, Andes

Duque P. V., A. B. Vélez, A. D. U. Marin, E. M. B. Flores, D. L. Castillo & M. Wolff. 2014. Estados inmaduros e historia natural de la mariposa Andina Actinote callianthe amoena, (Jordan, 1913) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae, Acraeini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 87-95.

Resumen: Los estados inmaduros y comportamiento de Actinote callianthe amoena Jordan, 1913, son descritos aquí por primera vez. Las larvas fueron cultivadas en laboratorio a partir de huevos colectados en campo en la planta hospedera Oligactes volubilis (Kunth) Cass (Asteraceae). Los huevos y las larvas son gregarias, excepto en el último y penúltimo instar. La morfología y el comportamiento de las larvas es similar a las especies descritas previamente, Actinote ozomene (Godart, 1819), Actinote trinacria cf. unicolor Talbot, 1932, de los Andes norteños y varias especies de Actinote Hübner, 1819 del sudeste del Brasil. No se hallaron caracteres morfológicos o de comportamiento que permitan reconocer dos géneros de Acraeini Neotropicales, Altinote Potts, 1943, y Actinote.

Palabras Clave: Oligactes volubilis, inmaduros, comportamiento, Acraeini, Actinote.

Abstract: The immature stages and behavior of Actinote callianthe amoena Jordan, 1913, are described here for the first time. Larvae were reared from egg clutches collected from the host plant Oligactes volubilis (Kunth) Cass (Asteraceae). Eggs and larvae were gregarious except in the last and penultimate instar. Larvae showed similar morphology and behavior to those previously described for Actinote ozomene (Godart, 1819), Actinote trinacria cf. unicolor Talbot, 1932, from the Colombian Andes and to species of Actinote Hübner, 1819, from southeastern Brazil and the Andes. No morphological or behavioral characters in the immature stages were found to support the taxonomic distinction of Altinote Potts, 1943, and Actinote.

Key Words: Oligates volubilis, immature, behavior, Acraeini, Actinote

Brattström, O., W. Mey, R. De Vos & P. M. Brakefield. 2014. A century old mistake set right: the identities of Mydosama marginata and Mydosama pitana pinned down. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 96-101.

Abstract: Due to an error made whilst producing a major butterfly book more than a century ago, a pair of specimens of the species Mydosama pitana (Staudinger, 1897) was used as the basis for the first published illustration of the species Mydosama marginata (Moore, 1881). This error is most likely the reason why today the specimen considered as the holotype of M. marginata is actually a specimen of M. pitana. This in turn appears to have led to another more recent major work on butterflies mixing up the two species. After finding the type series of M. pitana, and surveying collections at seven major museums for available specimens, we now have strong evidence for the identity of both these species. We did not find a single case of sympatry, despite this having been reported in recent literature. To clarify the use of the name M. pitana a lectotype is designated from the specimens in Staudinger’s original type series.

Keywords: Mydosama marginata, Mydosama pitana, Mycalesis, taxonomic revision, mistaken identities

Melo, D. H. A., B. K. C. Filgueiras, I. R. Leal & A. V. L. Freitas. 2014. Scientific Note: Recent records of Morpho menelaus eberti (Fischer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), an endangered butterfly in northeast Brazil. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 102-104.

Keywords: conservation, Northeastern Atlantic Forest, Morphini, Alagoas

Neild, A. F. E. & Z. Bálint. 2014. Notes on the identity of Evenus coronata (Hewitson, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini) with the description of a remarkably overlooked sibling species. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 105-120.

Abstract: The syntypes of Thecla coronata Hewitson, 1865 and holotype of Thecla watkinsi Lathy, 1926 were examined and their identity is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Thecla coronata Hewitson, 1865 in order to stabilise the nomenclature. A new Andean species, Evenus felix sp. nov., is described. Distribution data indicate extensive sympatry of both species in the eastern Andes. We present diagnostic characters for the new species including differences in wing pattern, male modified wing scale patches and genitalic brush organs, and mitochondrial COI DNA “barcode” sequences. A discussion and natural history notes follow for both species. We document adults and their genitalia, and distribution data and maps are provided.

Resumen: Se examinaron los sintipos de Thecla coronata Hewitson, 1865, el holotipo de Thecla watkinsi Lathy, 1926 y se argumenta sobre su identidad. Se designa un lectotipo de Thecla coronata Hewitson, 1865 para estabilizar su nomenclatura. Se describe una nueva especie Andina, Evenus felix n. sp. Los datos de distribución indican amplia simpatría entre ambas especies en los Andes orientales. Se presentan los caracteres diagnósticos para la nueva especie incluyendo diferencias en el patrón alar,  áreas de escamas modificadas en las alas de los machos, órganos en forma de pincel del aparato genital y secuencias de “barcode” del gen COI de su ADN mitocondrial. Se discuten aspectos de la historia natural de ambas especies. Se documentan los estadios adultos y sus estructuras genitales, datos geográficos y mapas de distribución.

Key words: lectotype, watkinsi, genitalia, immature stages, Pouteria, Sapotaceae, Andes, Ecuador, mitochondrial COI DNA barcode

Aibar-Abregú, P. 2014. Scientific Note: Hostplant records for the myrmecophilous butterfly Harveyope densemaculata (Hewitson, 1870) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 24(2): 121.

Abstract: Hostplant records are presented herein for Harveyope densemaculata (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) larvae found in myrmecophilous association with Crematogaster ants at the Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. These are the first hostplant records reported for that species.

Key words: Crematogaster; lowland rainforest; Manu National Park; Peru.

JUNE 2015 Volume 25, No. 1

Willmott, K. R. 2015. A new subspecies of Cithaerias pyropina (Salvin & Godman, 1868) from the Cordillera de Cutucú in southeastern Ecuador (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 1-4.

Abstract: The new subspecies Cithaerias pyropina julia Willmott, n. ssp., is described from the Cordillera de Cutucú, an isolated sedimentary mountain range in southeastern Ecuador. This is the first new insect taxon to be described from this mountain range, to which it currently appears to be endemic. The new subspecies is distinguished from other subspecies in Peru and Bolivia by its extensive dark blue iridescence and lack of pinkish markings on the dorsal hindwing.

Resumen: Se describe la nueva subespecie Cithaerias pyropina julia Willmott, n. ssp. de la Cordillera del Cutucú, una cordillera aislada de origen sedimentario en el este del Ecuador. Este representa el primer taxón nuevo descrito de esta Cordillera, donde aparentemente es endémico. La nueva subespecie se distingue de otras subespecies en Perú y Bolivia por su color de azul iridescente y la ausencia de marcas rosadas en el ala posterior en la cara dorsal.

Key words: Bolivia, Cithaerias pyropina julia Willmott n. ssp., Cithaerias pyropina pyropina, Cithaerias pyropina songoana, cloud forest, Andes, Cordillera de Kutukú

Sohn, J-C. & J. B. Heppner. 2015. Two new species of Cotaena Walker (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) from Brazil. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 5-7.

Abstract: Cotaena magnifica n. sp. and Cotaena tchalla n. sp. are described from male specimens collected from Brazil. Both new species are compared to the known species of Cotaena. Photographic images are provided for the imagines and the genitalia of the two new species.

Key words: Cotaena, Eucamina, Myrsila, Neotropical Region, taxonomy, Yponomeutoidea

Fernández-Hernández, D. M. & M. C. Minno. 2015. The slowly expanding range of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in Cuba. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 8-14.

Abstract: The Old World swallowtail Papilio demoleus Linnaeus was first reported in the Dominican Republic in March 2004 and was later discovered in Cuba in June 2007. This conspicuous butterfly has been documented from coastal areas of the eastern-most Cuban provinces of Guantánamo, Holguín, and Santiago de Cuba. The dispersal of the butterfly in Cuba has been relatively slow. In 2014 we found P. demoleus at sites further to the west and interior of the coast in Las Tunas and Camagüey provinces. The immature stages are attacked by predators and parasitoids in Cuba and other islands of the West Indies and P. demoleus does not appear to be much of a threat to citrus production or native citrus-feeding swallowtails.

Key words: P. demoleus, Biogeography, immature stages, larval host plants, butterflies, biology, West Indies, Greater Antilles, Heraclides andraemon

Resumen: La mariposa cola de golondrina del Viejo Mundo Papilio demoleus Linnaeus fue registrada por primera vez en República Dominicana en marzo del 2004 y posteriormente en Cuba en junio del 2007. Esta mariposa ha sido documentada en las áreas costeras de las provincias más orientales de Cuba, como Guantánamo, Holguín y Santiago de Cuba. Su dispersión en Cuba ha sido relativamente lenta. En el 2014 se encontró en localidades más hacia el oeste y el interior de la Isla en las provincias Las Tunas y Camagüey. Sus estadios inmaduros son atacados por depredadores y parasitoides en Cuba y en otras islas del Caribe y P. demoleus no parece constituir un peligro para la producción de cítricos ni para los papiliónidos nativos que utilizan estas plantas como hospederos larvales.

Palabras clave: P. demoleus, Biogeografía, estadios inmaduros, plantas hospederas, mariposas, Caribe, Antillas Mayores, Heraclides andraemon

Thöny H. & F. Piñas. 2015. Remarks, corrections, comments and additions to Vol. 23 and 25 of the ‘Mariposas del Ecuador’ on the genus Gonodonta Hübner, 1818 (Noctuoidea, Erebidae, Ophiderinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 15-21.

Abstract: Species of the genus Gonodonta Hübner, 1818, listed and illustrated in the series “Mariposas del Ecuador” (Piñas, 2005a,b) are reviewed and re-identifed where necessary. The following Gonodonta species are recorded for the first time in Ecuador: G. pulverea Schaus, 1911, G. chorinea (Stoll, 1780), G. incurva (Sepp, [1840]), G. amiantha Hampson, 1924, G. nitidimacula Guenée, 1852, G. maria Guenée, 1852, G. uxoria (Cramer, 1780), G. latimacula Guenée, 1852, G. clothilda (Stoll, 1791), G. syrnaGuenée, 1852, G. indentata Hampson, 1926, G. lincus (Cramer, 1775), G. biarmata biarmata Guenée, 1852, G. distincta Todd, 1959, G. magnifica Thöny, 2001, G. fulvidens Felder & Rogenhofer, 1872, G. holosericea Guenée, 1852, G. parens Guenée, 1852, and G. milla Thöny, 1999.

Resumen: Las especies del género Gonodonta Hübner, 1818, en “Mariposas del Ecuador” de Piñas (2005a,b), estan corregidas y determinadas. Gonodonta pulverea Schaus, 1911, G. chorinea (Stoll, 1780), G. incurva (Sepp, [1840]), G. amiantha Hampson, 1924, G. nitidimacula Guenée, 1852, G. maria Guenée, 1852, G. uxoria (Cramer, 1780), G. latimacula Guenée, 1852, G. clothilda (Stoll, 1791), G. syrna Guenée, 1852, G. indentata (Hampson, 1926), G. lincus (Cramer, 1775), G. biarmata biarmata Guenée, 1852, G. distincta Todd, 1959, G. magnifica Thöny, 2001, G. fulvidens Felder & Rogenhofer, 1872, G. holosericea Guenée, 1852, G. parens Guenée, 1852, und G. milla Thöny, 1999, son los primeros registros para el Ecuador.

Zusammenfassung: Die Arten der Gattung Gonodonta Hübner, 1818, in “Mariposas del Ecuador” (Piñas, 2005a,b) werden überprüft und neu bestimmt. Die folgenden Gonodonta-Arten werden erstmals für Ecuador nachgewiesen: G. pulverea Schaus, 1911, G. chorinea (Stoll, 1780), G. incurva (Sepp, [1840]), G. amiantha Hampson, 1924, G. nitidimacula Guenée, 1852, G. maria Guenée, 1852, G. uxoria (Cramer, 1780), G. latimacula Guenée, 1852, Gonodonta clothilda (Stoll, 1791), G. syrna Guenée, 1852, G. indentata (Hampson, 1926), G. lincus (Cramer, 1775), G. biarmata biarmata Guenée, 1852, G. distincta Todd, 1959, G. magnifica Thöny, 2001, G. fulvidens Felder & Rogenhofer, 1872, Gonodonta holosericea Guenée, 1852, G. parens Guenée, 1852, und G. milla Thöny, 1999.

Key words: Noctuoidea, Erebidae, Calpinae, Calpini, Neotropics, Gonodonta, Ecuador

Núñez-Bustos, E. O. 2015. Catálogo preliminar de Saturniidae de Argentina, con veintiún nuevos registros (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 22-33.

Abstract: A preliminary catalog of 180 species in 62 genera of Saturniidae from Argentina is presented for the first time, with the inclusion of 21 species not previously recorded for the country, which are illustrated and commented upon (Cercophana frauenfeldi, C. venusta, Arsenura biundulata, Copiopteryx sonthonnaxi, Paradaemonia meridionalis, Adeloneivaia acuta, Dacunju jucunda, Procitheronia purpurea, Schausiella arpi, S. carabaya, Automerella aurora, Catacantha ferruginea, Dirphia baroma, D. dolosa, Dirphiopsis trisignata, Hidripa paranensis, H. perdix, Hylesia rufex, Travassosula subfumata, Rothschildia belus and R. hesperus betis). Five of the genera are new records for Argentina (Cercophana, Dacunju, Procitheronia, Schausiella and Travassosula). Other species presented include some cited long ago and not seen for many years, but now found to be present. The omission in this catalog of many recently described supposed species is discussed.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, New records, Catalog, Argentina

Resumen: Se presenta por vez primera un catálogo preliminar de 180 especies de Saturniidae de Argentina repartidas en 62 géneros, con la inclusión de 21 especies no citadas previamente para el país, las cuales son ilustradas y comentadas (Cercophana frauenfeldi, C. venusta, Arsenura biundulata, Copiopteryx sonthonnaxi, Paradaemonia meridionalis, Adeloneivaia acuta, Dacunju jucunda, Procitheronia purpurea, Schausiella arpi, S. carabaya, Automerella aurora, Catacantha ferruginea, Dirphia baroma, D. dolosa, Dirphiopsis trisignata, Hidripa paranensis, H. perdix, Hylesia rufex, Travassosula subfumata, Rothschildia belus y R. hesperus betis). Cinco de esos registros corresponden a géneros nuevos para Argentina (Cercophana, Dacunju, Procitheronia, Schausiella y Travassosula). Se discute la presencia de otras especies citadas hace mucho tiempo atrás y no vueltas a hallar. La omisión en el presente catálogo de muchas supuestas nuevas especies descritas recientemente es discutida.

Palabras clave: Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Nuevos registros, Catálogo, Argentina

Sourakov, A. 2015. Temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in wing pattern of Utetheisa ornatrix bella (Erebidae, Arctiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(1): 34-45.

Abstract: Utetheisa ornatrix exhibits geographic and intrapopulational variability in wing pattern. Here, evidence is presented that temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity exists in north Florida populations of the subspecies U. ornatrix bella. On six different occasions, experimental groups of late instar larvae and pupae were reared at lower temperatures (15-16°C) and short-day photoperiod, while control groups of sibling larvae were raised through to adult stage at 22°C. Resultant moths from the two groups had different wing pattern phenotypes. Increased melanization is the probable cause of the observed differences, as the cold-affected individuals had more extensive black markings on both surfaces of forewing and hindwing. Cold-induced melanization affected both wings simultaneously, in which it differed from normal genetic variation in melanic markings found in U. ornatrix, which inherits separately for fore- and hindwing. Additionally, cold-induced reduction of red/orange pigmentation on the upper forewing surface was sometimes observed. The expression of this phenotypic plasticity varied depending on the brood used in the experiment. Possible adaptive significance of cold-induced melanization in bella moth is discussed in the context of our knowledge of similar phenotypic plasticity found in many butterfly species.

Key words: adaptation, reaction norm, polyphenism, polymorphism, Lepidoptera, thermal biology, camouflage, aposematism, bella moth, ornate moth, chemical ecology, melanin accumulation, seasonal forms

DECEMBER 2015 Volume 25, No. 2

Warren, A. D., Dolibaina, D. R., Grishin, N. V. 2015. In limbo no longer: a new genus for a rare Amazonian skipper, Telles pyrex Evans, 1955 (Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 46-51.

Abstract: The male of the rare Amazonian skipper Telles pyrex Evans, 1955 is described and illustrated for the first time. This species has been without a generic affiliation, incertae sedis, since 2009. The generic placement of this species is investigated, considering characters from the male genitalia, wings, and DNA barcodes. Pseudorphe A. Warren & Dolibaina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate this species, placed in the tribe Calpodini. Key words: Amazon, Calpodini, genitalia, modified scales, monotypic.

Dolibaina, D. R., Warren, A. D., Carneiro, E., Mielke, O. H. H. 2015. Three new species of Artines Godman, 1901 from Central and South America (Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Moncini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 52-59.

Abstract: Three new species of Artines Godman, 1901 are described: Artines maya A. Warren & Dolibaina sp. nov. from Mexico, Belize and Guatemala; Artines steinhauseri Dolibaina & A. Warren sp. nov. from eastern Ecuador; and Artines mirnae O. Mielke, Dolibaina, Carneiro & A. Warren sp. nov. from Brazil (Piauí, Maranhão and Mato Grosso). Taxonomic comments, images of the adults and illustrations of the genitalia are provided for the new taxa. Additionally, in order to characterize these new species, taxa with similar wing patterns are illustrated and discussed, including A. rica Steinhauser & Austin, 1993, A. fosca Evans, 1995 and A. acroleuca (Plötz, 1884).

Key words: Belize, biodiversity, Brazil, butterfly, Cerrado, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, skipper, taxonomy.

Davenport, C. 2015. A new subspecies of Delias vietnamensis Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2000 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from Cambodia. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 60-62.

Abstract: A new subspecies of Delias vietnamensis Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2000, D. vietnamensis pequini ssp. nov., is described from the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia.

Keywords: Delias, Pieridae, Cambodia, Cardamom Mts.

Nakahara, S., Hall, J. P. W., Lamas, G., Willmott, K. R. 2015. Seven new species and one new subspecies of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the tropical Andes. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 63-79.

Abstract: Seven new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, E. truncata Nakahara & Hall, n. sp., E. pillaca Nakahara & Willmott, n. sp., E. padroni Nakahara, Lamas & Willmott, n. sp., E. enyita Nakahara, Lamas & Willmott, n. sp., E. granatina Nakahara, Le Crom & Hall, n. sp., E. fernandae Nakahara & Willmott, n. sp., E. pegasus Nakahara & Hall, n. sp., and one new subspecies E. cesarense obtusa Nakahara, n. ssp. are described herein. Adults and their genitalia are illustrated for all species and distribution maps are provided.

Resumen: Se describen siete especies nuevas de Euptychia Hübner, 1818, E. truncata Nakahara & Hall, n. sp., E. pillaca Nakahara & Willmott, n. sp., E. padroni Nakahara, Lamas & Willmott, n. sp., E. enyita Nakahara, Lamas & Willmott, n. sp., E. granatina Nakahara, Le Crom & Hall, n. sp., E. fernandae Nakahara & Willmott, n. sp., E. pegasus Nakahara & Hall, n. sp., y una nueva subespecie E. cesarense obtusa Nakahara, n. ssp.. Se ilustran los adultos y sus genitalias, y se proporciona datos y mapas de distribución para cada especie.

Key words: Colombia, Ecuador, Euptychiina, Neotropical, Peru, Satyrini, taxonomy.

Sourakov, A., Plotkin, D., Kawahara, A. Y., Xiao, L., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D. 2015. On the taxonomy of the erythrina moths Agathodes and Terastia (Crambidae: Spilomelinae): Two different patterns of haplotype divergence and a new species of Terastia. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 80-97.

Abstract: Members of two species complexes in the family Crambidae feed on ornamental and medicinal plants of the genus Erythrina (Fabaceae), commonly known as coral beans and/or coral trees, in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Erythrina leaf-rollers (genus Agathodes) and erythrina borers (genus Terastia), although different ecologically and phenotypically, are sister genera. Each is represented by several very similar species. The erythrina leaf-rollers comprise a species complex that, in the New World, consists of Agathodes monstralis Guenée, 1854 rev. stat. and A. designalis Guenée, 1854. We analyzed morphology and DNA barcoding data of populations throughout the geographic range and concluded that North American A. monstralis, which was previously demoted to the status of a subspecies of A. designalis, is a valid species. The two are sympatric in Costa Rica. In contrast, the erythrina borer, Terastia meticulosalis Guenée, 1854, which has a similar geographic distribution to A. designalis, shows no divergence in DNA barcodes and morphology in the New World. However, DNA barcode analyses and detailed morphological examinations of the Asian and African populations of Terastia meticulosalis species group show that these represent several species. Thus, a new species, Terastia africana Sourakov, sp. nov., is described and the status of T. subjectalis Lederer, 1863 as a valid species is confirmed.

Key words: DNA barcoding, morphology, cryptic species, biogeography, allopatric speciation, clinal variation, co-evolution, Pyraloidea.

Gorbunov, O. 2015. Scientific Note: Clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) of Laos. I. Akaisphecia melanopuncta O. Gorbunov & Arita, 1995 (Sesiidae: Sesiinae: Osminiini). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 46-51.

Abstract: The results of a lepidopterological expedition to Laos in 2005 are presented as the first notes of a planned series. Akaisphecia melanopuncta O. Gorbunov & Arita, 1995 (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) is recorded for Laos for the first time. Illustrations of imago and habitat are presented.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Sesiidae, Akaisphecia melanopuncta, Laos, new record.

Turner, J. D., McInnis, M. 2015. Scientific Note: Euselasia andreae Hall, Willmott & Busby, 1998, in Panama (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 101-103.

Willmott, K. R. 2015. Book Review: “Butterflies.” By Ronald I. Orenstein and Thomas Marent (2015). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 25(2): 104-105.